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placename:- Citadel, The
locality:- Carlisle
parish Carlisle city, once in Cumberland
county:- Cumbria
court; castle
coordinates:- NY40255566
10Km square:- NY45

1Km square NY4055

Designed by Thomas Telford, completed, 1810; replacing towers built by Henry VIII, 1542.
photograph

Citadel, The -- Carlisle -- Carlisle -- Cumbria / -- 19.4.2006
photograph

Citadel, The -- Carlisle -- Carlisle -- Cumbria / -- 19.4.2006

old map:- OS County Series (Cmd 23 7)

County Series maps of Great Britain, scales 6 and 25 inches to 1 mile, published by the Ordnance Survey, Southampton, Hampshire, from about 1863 to 1948.

placename:- Citadel
building/s
date:- 1890=1899
period:- 19th century, late; 1890s

old map (vignette):- Burrow 1920s

Road strip maps with parts in Westmorland, Cumberland etc, now Cumbria, irregular scale about 1.5 miles to 1 inch, by E J Burrow and Co, Cheltenham, Gloucestershire, 1920s.
thumbnail EJB3Vg30, button to large image
date:- 1920=1929
period:- 1920s

descriptive text:- Ford 1839 (3rd edn 1843)

Description of Scenery in the Lake District, by William Ford, published by Charles Thurnham, London, et al, 1839; published 1839-52.
Page 100:-
...
... From the south, after passing through the suburbs of Botchergate, adorned with the new edifice of Christ Church, the entrance is between the Court-houses, impressing the stranger with the not im-
Page 101:-
[im]probable idea that he is entering through the bastions of a fortified city. ...
date:- 1839
period:- 19th century, early; 1830s

old map:- Bell 1833

Maps, Westmoreland, scale about 5.5 miles to 1 inch, and Cumberland, scale about 8 miles to 1 inch, by James Bell? engraved by R Scott, published by Archibald Fullarton and Co, Glasgow, Strathclyde, about 1833-34; published 1833-46.
thumbnail BEL3Vgn2, button to large image
date:- 1833
period:- 19th century, early; 1830s

old text:- Camden 1789 (Gough Additions)

Britannia, or A Chorographical Description of the Flourishing Kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland, by William Camden, 1586, translated from the 1607 Latin edition by Richard Gough, published London, 1789.
Page 193:-
...
... Henry VIII. built the citadel, an oblong with three bastions on the west side of the town, now neglected. ...
person:- : Henry VIII
date:- 1789
period:- 18th century, late; 1780s

descriptive text:- Defoe 1724-26

Travel book, Tour through England and Wales, by Daniel Defoe, published in parts, London, 1724-26.
... King Henry VIII fortify'd the city against the Scots, and built an additional castle to it on the east side, which Mr. Cambden, though I think not justly, calls a cittadel; ...

placename:- Cittadel
date:- 1724=1726
period:- 18th century, early; 1720s

descriptive text:- Bowen 1720 (plate 161)

Road book, Britannia Depicta Or Ogilby Improv'd, including road strip maps with sections in Westmorland, scale about 2 miles to 1 inch, derived from maps by Ogilby, 1675, and a county map of Westmorland, scale about 8 miles to 1 inch, with text by John Owen, published by Emanuel Bowen, London, 1720; published 1720-64.
CARLISLE - ... The Castle is at this Day a well Fortifyed building, as is the Cittadel, which rec~ed considerable additions in its Strength, from K. Henry 8th. ...

placename:- Cittadel
person:- : Henry VIII
date:- 1720
period:- 18th century, early; 1720s

old painting:-
thumbnail PR0912, button to large image
Painting, watercolour, South East View of the Citadel of Carlisle, Cumberland, by Robert Carlyle snr, 1791.
Summertime; in centre of composition stands the citadel, its ramparts overgrown with weeds. In centre foreground a young couple walk arm in arm, he gesturing with his right arm. To their left stand two cows. To far left of composition the roofs of distant buildings are visible with open countryside beyond.
One of a set of 11 original drawings for proposed aquatints The Antiquities of the City of Carlisle, 1791.
The work was adapted by Matthew Ellis Nutter, being executed as one of a series of 17 works by Carlyle and published by Thurnam as Carlisle in the Olden Time, 1835. See CALMG:1978.108.74.4
inscribed at bottom centre:-
SOUTH EAST VIEW of the CITADEL of CARLISLE.

placename:- Citadel of Carlisle
date:- 1791
period:- 18th century, late

old print:-
thumbnail PR1020, button to large image
Print, polychrome, The Citadel or Court Houses, English Street, Carlisle, Cumberland, by Joseph W Simpson, about 1939.
View of the court houses on a sunny day viewed from an elevated perspective. Motor cars and people pass in front of them.
signed at top right on print:-
Simpson
date:- 1939
period:- 1930s

old painting:-
thumbnail PR0915, button to large image
Painting, watercolour, South East View of the Citadel of Carlisle, Cumberland, by Robert Carlyle snr, about 1792.
Citadel on a bright sunny day, its ramparts thrown into partial shadow. In the foreground two men, one holding a spade slung over his shoulder and the other leaning on a stick, stand conversing on a path which passes through the meadow in which there are two cows, one standing whilst the other lies down. Sandstone buildings lie to either side of the citadel, most of which have smoke issuing from their chimneys.
inscribed at bottom left:-
Drawn by Rob't Carlyle
inscribed at bottom centre:-
SOUTH EAST VIEW of the CITADEL of CARLISLE.

placename:- Citadel of Carlisle
date:- 1792
period:- 18th century, late

old painting:-
thumbnail PR1092, button to large image
Painting, watercolour, The Court Houses, Carlisle, Cumberland, by William Henry Nutter, 1840s.
View of the court houses from the direction of the railway station. A packed stagecoach approaches the Crescent from between them. In the foreground a woman and toddler cross the street, their backs towards the viewer.
signed at bottom left on mount:-
W Nutter
inscribed at bottom centre on mount:-
The Court Houses - Carlisle.

placename:- Court Houses, The
date:- 1840=1849
period:- 19th century, early

old print:-
thumbnail PR1143, button to large image
Print, hand coloured, The Court Houses, Carlisle, Cumberland, 1870s.
View of the court houses and the road in front of them which is peopled by passersby and carriages.
inscribed at bottom centre:-
THE COURT HOUSES, CARLISLE.

placename:- Court Houses, The
date:- 1870=1879
period:- 19th century, late

old print:-
thumbnail PR1416, button to large image
Print, coloured, The Court Houses, Carlisle, on a calendar page for January 1940, by Joseph W Simpson, published by Charles Thurnam and Sons, 11 English Street, Carlisle, Cumberland, 1940.
View of Court Houses from an aerial perspective in front of the railway station. People cross the road in the foreground.
signed at top right on print:-
Simpson
thumbnail PR1417, button to large image
date:- 1940
period:- 1940s

database:- Listed Buildings 2010

Listed Buildings 2010

courtesy of English Heritage
ASSIZE COURTS / / ENGLISH STREET / CARLISLE / CARLISLE / CUMBRIA / I / 386723 / NY4025055669
courtesy of English Heritage
Formerly known as: The Citadel.
Citadel, then Court House and Court Offices, now County Council Offices. 1542 by Stephen von Haschenperg with 1809-12 alterations and additions, by Thomas Telford and Sir Robert Smirke. Red sandstone ashlar on chamfered plinth with string courses, machicolated cornice (in part) and battlemented parapets. C20 greenslate roof on offices without chimneys and hipped lead roof on tower. Tower was formerly the Nisi Prius Court and is oval, the core being the former Citadel east tower, heightened and refaced in C19; clasping NW side is a 2-storey (internally 3 storeys) office block of 6 bays, with mock gate projection into English Street; all in Gothic style. The tower has tall 2-light windows in rounded deeply-recessed chamfered archs, over small lancets and 2-light openings. Office block has left double plank doors in pointed Gothic arch; similar off-centre doorway projects in a battlemented porch, now fitted with a casement window. Ground floor 2-, 3- and 4-light stone mullioned windows above with central trefoil heads in pointed arches. Gate projection is basically an elongated passageway to the court; ends in 2 octagonal turrets flanking central arch under a cross vent; the side walls have been pierced by 2 pointed arches created in 1929 (formerly the pavement went round the turrets). Left return has windows similar to the main facade (some are C20) and blind statue niches. Rear has some C20 windows inserted.
INTERIOR of tower retains its galleried semicircular court seating and judges bench (ceased to be used 1971). Ceiling replica replaced in 1980s renovation; much external stonework was replaced in same restoration. Office block interior extensively altered. For further details see references on Crown Court description.

placename:- Assize Courts
district:- Carlisle
listed building
coordinates:- NY40255566
date:- 2010
period:- 2010s

database:- Listed Buildings 2010

Listed Buildings 2010

courtesy of English Heritage
CROWN COURT, ADJOINING OFFICES AND GATE ARCH / / ENGLISH STREET / CARLISLE / CARLISLE / CUMBRIA / I / 386722 / NY4021255619
courtesy of English Heritage
Formerly known as: The Citadel.
Crown Court and Court Offices on the site of the 1542 Citadel. 1810-17 (interior not completed until 1822) by Sir Robert Smirke. Red sandstone ashlar on chamfered plinth with string courses, machicolated cornice (in part) and battlemented parapets. Hipped lead roofs. Rounded tall tower is completely C19, on the site of the demolished western tower of the Citadel (of the same dimensions); clasping the NW side is a lower 2-storey office block of 6 bays, with mock gate projection into English Street; all in Gothic style and almost a mirror image of the Nisi Prius Court range opposite, with which it forms a pair. Tower has tall 2-light windows in rounded deeply-recessed chamfered arch, over small lancets. Office block has right double plank doors in pointed Gothic arch; similar off-centre doorway projects in a battlemented porch, now fitted with a casement window. Ground-floor stone mullioned windows in double chamfered surrounds. Larger 2-light Gothic windows above with central trefoil heads in pointed arches. Gate projection was formerly a passageway to the court; ends in 2 octagonal turrets flanking central arch under a cross vent; the side walls have been pierced by 2 pointed arches created in 1929 (formerly the pavement went around the turrets).
INTERIOR of court retains its original galleried seating of panelled oak. The offices are internally divided on ground floor. Members' room has late C19 monogrammed carved oak fireplace with tiled and engraved slate fireback. Upper floor No.2 Courtroom has plain stone fireplace, pointed archways, dado panelling along one wall and rib-panelled plaster ceiling. In an outer corridor the removal of a false ceiling has revealed the earlier painting of the panelled ceiling. Marble statue of Major Aglionby by Musgrave Lewthwaite Watson, 1844, has been moved from the main entrance and temporarily boxed in to prevent damage during renovation work. Staircase has ribbed and traceried wooden ceiling with flat central skylight (void above). Grand Jury Room has dado oak panelling; pointed arches, one an alcove and rib-vaulted plaster ceiling. Some original panelled doors.
J Hughes CWAAS, Trans.NS LXX
Perriam CWAAS, Trans.NS LXXVIII.
Cumb. & West. Antiquarian & Archaeological Soc., New Series: Hughes J: LXX: The building of the Courts, Carlisle 1807-22: 205-20
Cumb. & West. Antiquarian & Archaeological Soc., New Series: Perriam DR: LXXVIII: The dating of the County Goal: 129-140
district:- Carlisle
listed building
coordinates:- NY40215561
date:- 2010
period:- 2010s

descriptive text:- Gents Mag (1746)

The Gentleman's Magazine or Monthly Intelligencer, published by Edward Cave under the pseudonym Sylvanus Urban, and by other publishers, London, monthly from 1731 to 1914.
The troops [rebels, 9.11.1745] on the south side under the pretender's son were in like manner repuls'd by the citadel and turret guns. ...
During the pretended siege [Carlisle, November 1745] the garrison had a lad kill'd on the citadel by a musket shot, ...
date:- 1745
period:- 18th century, early; 1740s

old print:-
thumbnail PR0563, button to large image
Print, uncoloured engraving, Plan of the Entrance to the City of Carlisle, Cumberland, scale 1 to 320, drawn by R Smirke jnr, engraved by H Mutloe, Russell Court, published by T Cadell and W Davies, Strand, London, 1816.
The courts at the Citadel.
printed at upper middle:-
PLAN OF THE ENTRANCE TO THE CITY OF CARLISLE. / from the South, with the Courts of Justice.
printed at bottom left, right, centre:-
R. Smirke Junr. R.A. del. / H. Mutloe sc. Russell Court. / London Published by T. Cadell & W. Davies Strand
printed at with scale line:-
date:- 1816
period:- 19th century, early

old print:-
thumbnail PR0588, button to large image
Print, uncoloured engraving, Citadel of Carlisle, Cumberland, perhaps late 18th century.
printed at bottom:-
Citadel of Carlisle

placename:- Citadel of Carlisle
date:- 1780=1799
period:- 18th century, late

old print:- Thurnam 1835

Set of prints, lithographs, with descriptive text, Carlisle in the Olden Time, drawings by M E Nutter et al, published by Charles Thurnam, Carlisle, Cumberland, by Ackermann and Co and others, London, 1835.
thumbnail THM107, button to large image
Print, uncoloured lithograph, The Citadel, Carlisle, Cumberland, drawn by M E Nutter, lithographed by P Gauci, published by Charles Thurnam, Carlisle, Cumberland, by Ackermann and Co, by Hodgson, Boys, and Graves, and by Charles Tilt, London, 1835.
Included in Carlisle in the Olden Time.
printed at bottom:-
Drawn by M. E. Nutter. / On stone by P. Gauci. / THE CITADEL. / Carlisle, Published by Chas. Thurnam,- London, Ackermann & Co. Hodgson, Boys, and Graves & Chas. Tilt. 1835.

placename:- Citadel, The
date:- 1835
period:- 19th century, early

old print:-
thumbnail PR0358, button to large image
Print, uncoloured engraving, The Court Houses, Carlisle, and Triumphal Arch, published by the Illustrated London News, 11 August 1855.
Page 181; illustrating a report of a Meeting of the Royal Agricultural Society of England.
printed at bottom:-
THE COURT-HOUSES, CARLISLE, AND TRIUMPHAL ARCH.
The accompanying text begins:-
THE seventeenth annual meeting of this society, which was held in Carlisle this year, commenced on Thursday, the 19th ult.; but the great influx of visitors did not begin till the following Wednesday. The preparations made for the occasion were of the usual description.
On entering Carlisle by any of the railway stations, the visitor's attention was attracted by triumphal arches of evergreens and flowers thrown across the roads in honour of the meeting of the Agricultural Society; and a number of the houses were appropriately decorated with flags, wreaths. and evergreens, in great profusion. ...
person:- society : Royal Agricultural Society of England
date:- 1855
period:- 19th century, late

old print:-
thumbnail PR0155, button to large image
Print, uncoloured engraving, Entrance to Carlisle from the South, Cumberland, drawn by W Westall, engraved by Edward Finden, published by Charles Tilt, 86 Fleet Street, London, 1828.
The view includes The Citadel.
printed at bottom left, right, centre:-
Drawn by W. Westall, A.R.A. / Engraved by Edwd. Finden. / ENTRANCE TO CARLISLE FROM THE SOUTH, / THE PRISON AND SESSIONS HOUSE. / Published by Charles Tilt, 86, Fleet Street, London, Novr. 1828.
date:- 1828
period:- 19th century, early

old print:- Britton and Brayley 1802

Book, with prints, The Beauties of England and Wales, by John Britton and Edward Wedlake Brayley published by Vernor and Hood, at al, London, 1802; published to 1847?
thumbnail PR0146, button to large image
Print, uncoloured engraving, The Citadel at Carlisle, Cumberland, drawn by R Carlisle, engraved by S Noble, published by Vernor and Hood, Poultry, London, 1803.
Included in the Beauties of England and Wales, by John Britton and Edward W Brayley.
printed at bottom left, right, centre:-
Engravd by S. Noble, from a drawing by R. Carlisle, / for the Beauties of England & Wales. / The CITADEL at CARLISLE, / Cumberland. / London, Published by Vernor and Hood, Poultry, Jan. 1. 1803.

placename:- Citadel, The
date:- 1803
period:- 19th century, early

notes 16th century artillery fort in the city walls, partly incorporated in the Court Houses
Perriam, D R & Robinson, J: 1998: Medieval Fortified Buildings of Cumbria: CWAAS:: ISBN 1 873124 23 6; plans & illustrations

Old Cumbria Gazetteer - JandMN: 2013

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