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placename:- Lancaster and Carlisle Railway
other name:- LandCR
other name:- Lanky, The
county:- Lancashire
parish Burton-in-Kendal parish, once in Westmorland
parish Holme parish, once in Westmorland
parish Beetham parish, once in Westmorland
parish Milnthorpe parish, once in Westmorland
parish Heversham parish, once in Westmorland
parish Hincaster parish, once in Westmorland
parish Stainton parish, once in Westmorland
parish Sedgwick parish, once in Westmorland
parish Natland parish, once in Westmorland
parish Kendal parish, once in Westmorland
parish Scalthwaiterigg parish, once in Westmorland
parish Docker parish, once in Westmorland
parish Lambrigg parish, once in Westmorland
parish Grayrigg parish, once in Westmorland
parish Firbank parish, once in Westmorland
parish Tebay parish, once in Westmorland
parish Orton S parish, once in Westmorland
parish Crosby Ravensworth parish, once in Westmorland
parish Shap Rural parish, once in Westmorland
parish Shap parish, once in Westmorland
parish Thrimby parish, once in Westmorland
parish Little Strickland parish, once in Westmorland
parish Lowther parish, once in Westmorland
parish Clifton parish, once in Westmorland
parish Yanwath and Eamont Bridge parish, once in Westmorland
parish Dacre parish, once in Cumberland
parish Penrith town, once in Cumberland
parish Hesket parish, once in Cumberland
parish St Cuthbert Without parish, once in Cumberland
parish Carlisle city, once in Cumberland
county:- Cumbria
railway
from Lancaster, through Hest Bank, Bolton-le-Sands, Carnforth, Lancashire; then Burton and Holme, Milnthorpe, Oxenholme, Grayrigg, Low Gill, Tebay, Shap, Clifton, Westmorland; then Penrith, Plumpton, Calthwaite, Southwaite, Wreay, to Carlisle, Cumberland.
References

imageRWY004.jpg

photograph

Lancaster and Carlisle Railway -- Burton-in-Kendal and Holme etc -- Lancashire -- Cumbria / -- Coat of arms on Carlisle Citadel Station. -- 29.9.2009
photograph

Lancaster and Carlisle Railway -- Burton-in-Kendal and Holme etc -- Lancashire -- Cumbria / -- Goods train S of Shap. -- 4.1.2006

old map:- LMS 1920s maps

Railway map, lithograph, 23 pages of strip maps, The Journey in Brief, the Route London to Carlisle, and a general map, Diagram of the Route London to Glasgow and Edinburgh, published by the London Midland and Scottish Railway, LMS, 1920s.
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date:- 1920=1929
period:- 1920s

old advertisement:- Jenkinson 1875 B

Guide book, Jenkinson's Smaller Practical Guide to Carlisle, Gilsland, Roman Wall and Neighbourhood, by Henry Irwin Jenkinson, published by Edward Stanford, 55 Charing Cross, London, 1875 edn 1884?
thumbnail JK1208, button to large image
Advertisement for the London and North Western Railway, published by Edward Stanford, 55 Charing Cross, London, 1884.
Adverts p.14 at the back of Jenkinson's Smaller Practical Guide to Carlisle, Gilsland, Roman Wall and Neighbourhood.

placename:- London and North Western Railway
date:- 1884
period:- 19th century, late; 1880s

source:- Martineau 1855

Guide book, A Complete Guide to the English Lakes, by Harriet Martineau, published by John Garnett, Windermere, Westmorland, and by Whittaker and Co, London, 1855; published 1855-71.
Page 3:-
The traveller arrives [at Windermere], we must suppose, by the railway from Kendal, having been dropped at the Oxenholme Junction by the London train from the south, or the Edinburgh and Carlisle train from the north.
Page 4:-
The railways skirt the lake district, but do not, and cannot, penetrate it: for the obvious reason that railways cannot traverse or pierce granite mountains or span broad lakes. If the time should ever come when iron roads will intersect the mountainous parts of Westmorland and Cumberland, that time is not yet; nor is in view,- loud as have been the lamentations of some residents, as if it were to happen to-morrow. No one who has ascended Dunmail Raise, or visited the head of Coniston Lake, or gone by Kirkstone to Patterdale, will for a moment imagine that any conceivable railway will carry strangers over those passes, for generations to come. It is a great thing that steam can convey travellers round the outskirts of the district, and up to its openings. This is now effectually done; and it is all that will be done by the steam locomotive during the lifetime of anybody yet born. The most important of the openings thus reached is that of WINDERMERE.
The mountain region of Cumberland and Westmorland has for its nucleus the cluster of tall mountains, of which Scawfell is the highest. There are the loftiest peaks and deepest valleys. These are surrounded by somewhat lower ridges and shallower vales; and these again by others, till the uplands are mere hills. and the valleys scarcely sunk at all. It is into these exterior undulations that the railways penetrate; and, at the first ridge of any steepness, they must stop. It is this which decides the termination of the Windermere railroad, and which prevents the lateral railways from coming nearer than the outer base ...
date:- 1855
period:- 19th century, late; 1850s

old map:- Garnett 1850s-60s H

Map of the English Lakes, scale about 3.5 miles to 1 inch, published by John Garnett, Windermere, Westmorland, 1850s-60s.
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triple line, light bold light, railway
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Lancaster & Carlisle Railway
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Lancaster & Carlisle Railway
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placename:- Lancaster and Carlisle Railway
date:- 1850=1869
period:- 19th century, late; 1850s; 1860s

old map:- Ford 1839 map

Notice the route layout around Kendal.
Map of the Lake District, published in A Description of Scenery in the Lake District, by William Ford, published by Charles Thurnham, London, 1839.
thumbnail FD12P1, button to large image
Unknown edition of the map.
date:- 1839
period:- 19th century, early; 1830s

source:- Dickens 1857 -- probably relevant

Page 5:-
... ...
These two [Thomas Idle and Francis Goodchild] had sent their personal baggage on by train: only retaining each a knapsack. Idle now applied himself to constantly regretting the train, to tracking it through the intricacies of Bradshaw's Guide, and finding out where it is now - and where now - and where now - and to asking what was the use of walking, when you could ride at such a pace as that. Was it to see the country? If that was the object, then look at it out of the carriage windows. There was a great deal more of it to be seen there than here. Besides, who wanted to see the country? Nobody. And again, whoever did walk? Nobody. Fellows set off to walk, but they never did it. They came back and said they did, but they didn't. Then why should he walk? He wouldn't walk. He swore it by this milestone!
It was the fifth from London, so far had they penetrated into the North. Submitting to the powerful chain of argument, Goodchild proposed a return to the Metropolis, and a falling back on Euston Square Terminus. Thomas assented with alacrity, and so they walked down into the North by the next morning's express, and carried their knapsacks in the luggage-van.
It was like all other expresses, as every express is and must be. It bore through the harvest country a smell like a large washing-day, and a sharp issue of steam as from a huge brazen tea-urn. The greatest power in nature and art combined, it yet glided over dangerous heights in the sight of people looking up from fields and roads, as smoothly and unreally as a light miniature plaything. Now the engine shrieked in hysterics of such intensity, that it seemed desirable that the men who had
Page 6:-
her in charge should hold her feet, slap her hands, and bring her to; now, burrowed into tunnels with a stubborn and undemonstrative energy so confusing that the train seemed to be flying back into leagues of darkness. Here, were station after station, swallowed up by the express without stopping; here, stations where it fired itself in like a volley of cannon-balls, swooped away four country-people with nosegays, and three men of business with portmanteaus, and fired itself off again, bang, bang, bang! At long intervals were uncomfortable refreshment-rooms, made more uncomfortable by the scorn of Beauty towards Beast, the public (but to whom she never relented, as Beauty did in the story, towards the other Beast), and where sensitive stomachs were fed, with a contemptuous sharpness occasioning indigestion. Here, again, were stations with nothing going but a bell, and wonderful wooden razors set aloft on great posts, shaving the air. In these fields, the horses, sheep, and cattle were well used to the thundering meteor, and didn't mind; in those, they were all set scampering together, and a herd of pigs scoured after them. The pastoral country darkened, became coaly, became smoky, became infernal, got better, got worse, improved again, grew rugged, turned romantic; was a wood, a stream, a chain of hills, a gorge, a moor, a cathedral town, a fortified place, a waste. Now, miserable black dwellings, a black canal, and sick black towers of chimneys; now, a trim garden, where the flowers were bright and fair; now, a wilderness of hideous altars all a-blaze; now, the water meadows with their fairy rings; now, the mangy patch of unlet building ground outside the stagnant town, with the larger ring where the Circus was last week. The temperature changed, the dialect changed, the people changed, faces got shaper, manner got short, eyes got shrewder and harder; yet all so quickly, that the spruce guard in the London uniform and silver lace, had not yet rumpled his shirt-collar, delivered half the dispatches in his shiny little pouch, or read his newspaper.
Carlisle! Idle and Goodchild had got to Carlisle. ... ...
date:- 1857
period:- 19th century, late; 1850s
event:- railway journey

old map:- Railway Clearing House 1900s-10s

LONDON & NORTH WESTERN
L. & N. W.
LONDON & NORTH WESTERN
L. & NORTH WESTERN

placename:- London and North Western Railway
date:- 1914
period:- 1910s

old advertisement:- Jenkinson 1875 B

Guide book, Jenkinson's Smaller Practical Guide to Carlisle, Gilsland, Roman Wall and Neighbourhood, by Henry Irwin Jenkinson, published by Edward Stanford, 55 Charing Cross, London, 1875 edn 1884?
thumbnail JK1208, button to large image
Advertisement for the London and North Western Railway, published by Edward Stanford, 55 Charing Cross, London, 1884.
Adverts p.14 at the back of Jenkinson's Smaller Practical Guide to Carlisle, Gilsland, Roman Wall and Neighbourhood.

placename:- London and North Western Railway
date:- 1884
period:- 19th century, late; 1880s

poem:-
ON THE PROJECTED KENDAL AND WINDERMERE RAILWAY.
William Wordsworth, 12 October 1844:-
person:- poet : Wordsworth, William
date:- 1844
period:- 19th century, early; 1840s

poem:-
Monckton Miles, about 1844
person:- poet : Miles, Monckton
date:- 1844
period:- 19th century, early; 1840s

photographs
tiny photograph, 
button to large Lancaster and Carlisle Railway -- Burton-in-Kendal and Holme etc -- Lancashire -- Cumbria / -- Train leaving Oxenholme Station. -- 18.11.2005
tiny photograph, 
button to large Lancaster and Carlisle Railway -- Burton-in-Kendal and Holme etc -- Lancashire -- Cumbria / -- Railway N from Plantation Bridge. -- 15.4.2006

photographs
tiny photograph, 
button to large Lancaster and Carlisle Railway -- Burton-in-Kendal and Holme etc -- Lancashire -- Cumbria / -- 18.4.2006
tiny photograph, 
button to large Lancaster and Carlisle Railway -- Burton-in-Kendal and Holme etc -- Lancashire -- Cumbria / -- 18.4.2006

hearsay On the initiative of Cornelius Nicholson, owner of the paper mill in Burneside, and others the railway was proposed August 1844, to run from Oxenholme to Low Wood between Bowness and Ambleside. An Opposition Committe set up under Professor Wilson, October 1844. And William Wordsworth reacted. Opposition was dissipated when the line was cut back to end at Birthwaite, now Windermere.
Authorised by Act of Parliament, Victoria 8 and 9 cap 32: for making a railway from the Lancaster and Carlisle Railway to Birthwaite in the parish of Windermere, to be called:-
The Kendal and Windermere Railway
From 1973 the 10 1/4 mile line has been referred to as a pointless railway; it has no points, is just one long siding.

Smith, Dick: 2002: Kendal and Windermere Railway: Cumbrian Railways Association:: ISBN 0 9549232 0 X
Mellentiin, Julian: 1980: Kendal and Windermere Railway: Dalesman Books (Clapham, North Yorkshire):: ISBN 0 85206 610 4

The Lancaster and Carlisle line was a continuation of a chain of railways reaching north from London towards Glasgow; London and Birmingham Railway, Grand Junction Railway, and North Union Railway. An editorial by John Steel, in the Carlisle Journal, prompted the GJR to investigate a continuation. A report by the company's engineer, Joseph Locke, a London and Glasgow Railway through Lancashire, 1836, chose a main line east of Lancaster, through Kirkby Lonsdale and the Lune valley, a tunnel through Shap Fell, via Askham to Penrith and Carlisle. Another proposed route was through Kendal, up Longsleddale, tunnel to Mardale, then Penrith etc. Another was up the Lune valley, tunnel under Orton Scar, Tebay, CRosby Ravensworth, Newby, Melkinthorpe, Crofton, Penrith, etc. These routes and one through Dunmail Raise, were rejected. George Stephenson reported, about 1837, on a possible coastal route from Lancaster via Ulverston and Whitehaven, avoiding the climb over Shap. People in Kendal, the biggest town between Lancaster and Carlisle, got a report from Job Bentley, who proposed a route from Lancaster via Carnforth, just east of Kendal, up Longsleddale and a tunnel through Gatescarth, to Bampton and Penrith. All these routes were in competition with an east coast route to Scotland, via Newcastle to Edinburgh. In 1839 the government appointed a commission to look at the various proposals. The result, in the west, was a compromise that went via Lancaster, close to Kendal, wiggled east through Grayrigg to the Lune valley, then via Penrith to Carlisle. A decision for or against east or west coast routes was avoided; the result was both. The Lancaster and Carlisle Railway was put in being, authorized 1844, opened 1846 - by which time the elements in the chain were combined as the London and North Western Railway.
George Stephenson surveyed a route round the Cumberland coast; both his a Locke's routes bypassed Kendal. Cornelius Nicholson and others in Kendal engaged Job Bintley of Kendal to survey a route that included Kendal. It was to go through Kendal, tunnel under Kendal Castle, up Longsleddale then a tunnel under Gatesgarth Pass, 2 1/4 miles, to Mardale and on to Penrith and Carlisle.
: 1846 (19 December): [Opening of the Lancaster to Carlisle Railway]: Illustrated London News: no.396: opening 'Tuesday last'; 6 page report with illustrations of Lancaster Station, Lowther Viaduct, Eamont Viaduct, Newbiggin Bridge, etc, and the contractor's dinner.
Awdry, Christopher: 1990: Encyclopaedia of British Railway Companies: Guild Publishing (London)
Joy, David: 1983 & 1990: Regional History of the Railways of Great Britain; the Lake Counties (vol.14): David and Charles (Newton Abbot, Devon):: ISBN 0 946537 56 9
Nicholson, Cornerlius: 1837: London and Glasgow Railway; the Interests of Kendal Considered

The decision to take the main line through Oxenholme, and so avoid the town of Kendal, was simply a matter of engineering. The line begins to climb somewhere east of Milnthorpe and continues in a steady gradient towards Grayrigg, Tebay and Shap. To have taken the line through Kendal, once the alternative plan to take it up Longsleddale had been shelved, would have meant losing the advantage.
Ffinch 1983

photographs
tiny photograph, 
button to large Lancaster and Carlisle Railway -- Burton-in-Kendal and Holme etc -- Lancashire -- Cumbria / -- Detail from the Millennium Window, St Michael's Church, Shap, design by Adam Goodyear, 2000. -- 11.11.2005

photographs
tiny photograph, 
button to large Lancaster and Carlisle Railway -- Burton-in-Kendal and Holme etc -- Lancashire -- Cumbria / -- 18.4.2006
tiny photograph, 
button to large Lancaster and Carlisle Railway -- Burton-in-Kendal and Holme etc -- Lancashire -- Cumbria / -- 18.4.2006
tiny photograph, 
button to large Lancaster and Carlisle Railway -- Burton-in-Kendal and Holme etc -- Lancashire -- Cumbria / -- 2008

photographs
Travelling Post Office, built by the LNWR as West Coast Joint Stock, for the West Coast Postal train, London Euston, Crewe, Carlisle, Glasgow, Aberdeen, 1863 onwards. The offset corridor connection is incompatible with ordinary coach stock, a security precaution.
tiny photograph, 
button to large Lancaster and Carlisle Railway -- Burton-in-Kendal and Holme etc -- Lancashire -- Cumbria / -- Travelling Post Office, 1863; notice the offset corridor connection. -- 2008 -- courtsey of the National Railway Museum.
tiny photograph, 
button to large Lancaster and Carlisle Railway -- Burton-in-Kendal and Holme etc -- Lancashire -- Cumbria / -- Travelling Post Office, 1863; exchange apparatus extended. -- 2008 -- courtsey of the National Railway Museum.
tiny photograph, 
button to large Lancaster and Carlisle Railway -- Burton-in-Kendal and Holme etc -- Lancashire -- Cumbria / -- Travelling Post Office, 1863. -- 2008 -- courtsey of the National Railway Museum.
tiny photograph, 
button to large Lancaster and Carlisle Railway -- Burton-in-Kendal and Holme etc -- Lancashire -- Cumbria / -- Travelling Post Office, 1863; post box on the side. -- 2008 -- courtsey of the National Railway Museum.
tiny photograph, 
button to large Lancaster and Carlisle Railway -- Burton-in-Kendal and Holme etc -- Lancashire -- Cumbria / -- Travelling Post Office, 1863; sorting racks and letters. -- 2008 -- courtsey of the National Railway Museum.
tiny photograph, 
button to large Lancaster and Carlisle Railway -- Burton-in-Kendal and Holme etc -- Lancashire -- Cumbria / -- Travelling Post Office, 1863; sorting racks and letters. -- 2008 -- courtsey of the National Railway Museum.
tiny photograph, 
button to large Lancaster and Carlisle Railway -- Burton-in-Kendal and Holme etc -- Lancashire -- Cumbria / -- Travelling Post Office, 1863; exchange apparatus, van net and lineside post. -- 2008 -- courtsey of the National Railway Museum.
tiny photograph, 
button to large Lancaster and Carlisle Railway -- Burton-in-Kendal and Holme etc -- Lancashire -- Cumbria / -- Travelling Post Office, 1863; van net and leather mail pouches. -- 2008 -- courtsey of the National Railway Museum.

photographs
6 wheeled for smooth running; 3000 gallon capacity; glass lined; would have been used for milk from Cumbria to London.
tiny photograph, 
button to large Lancaster and Carlisle Railway -- Burton-in-Kendal and Holme etc -- Lancashire -- Cumbria / -- LMS / United Dairies milk tank wagon, 1937. -- 2008 -- courtsey of the National Railway Museum.

: 1846 (December 19): Opening of the Lancaster and Carlisle Railway on Tuesday last: Illustrated London News: (London)

goes through
mapping:- Lancaster Castle Station, Lancashire
Hest Bank Station, Lancashire
Bolton-le-Sands Station, Lancashire
Carnforth Junction, Lancashire
Carnforth Station, Lancashire
Station South Junction, Lancashire
Burton and Holme Station, Burton-in-Kendal
railway bridge, Burton-in-Kendal
railway bridge, Holme
railway bridge, Beetham (2)
railway milepost, Beetham
railway bridge, Beetham
Milnthorpe Station, Milnthorpe
railway bridge, Milnthorpe
Rowell Railway Bridge, Heversham
Woodhouse Bridge, Woodhouse
railway bridge, Hincaster (2)
railway milepost, Hincaster
Hincaster Junction, Hincaster
railway bridge, Hincaster (3)
railway bridge, Hincaster (4)
railway bridge, Sedgwick
Newland Bridge, Natland
railway bridge, Natland
railway bridge, Kendal (3)
Kendal Junction, Kendal
Oxenholme Station, Kendal
railway bridge, Scalthwaiterigg
Hayfell Bridge, Scalthwaiterigg
Appleby Road Bridge, Docker
railway bridge, Docker
railway milepost, Docker
Docker Viaduct, Docker
Lambrigg Crossing, Lambrigg
railway milepost, Lambrigg
railway crossing, Lambrigg
Grayrigg Station, Lambrigg (2)
railway bridge, Lambrigg
railway bridge, Lambrigg (2)
Morsedale Hall Bridge, Lambrigg
Grayrigg Station, Lambrigg
Beck House Bridge, Lambrigg
railway bridge, Firbank (2)
Low Gill Station, Grayrigg (2)
Low Gill Junction, Grayrigg
Low Gill Station, Grayrigg
railway viaduct, Low Borrowbridge
Dillicar Water Troughs, Tebay
Tebay South Junction, Tebay
Tebay Station, Tebay
Tebay North Junction, Tebay
Birkbeck Viaduct, Tebay
Scotchman's Bridge, Orton S
railway bridge, Orton S
railway bridge, Crosby Ravensworth
Shap Summit, Shap Rural
railway bridge, Shap (3)
Shap Station, Shap
railway bridge, Shap (2)
railway bridge, Shap
railway tunnel, Little Strickland
railway bridge, Thrimby
Shapbeck Bridge, Thrimby
Thrimby Bridge, Thrimby
Great Strickland Bridge, Lowther
Melkinthorpe Bridge, Lowther
Clifton and Lowther Station, Clifton
Eden Valley Junction, Clifton
railway bridge, Clifton
railway bridge, Clifton (2)
Townend Road Bridge, Clifton
railway bridge, Clifton (6)
railway bridge, Clifton (7)
Hughscrag Viaduct, Yanwath etc
Hughscrag Bridge, Yanwath etc
Yanwath Bridge, Yanwath etc
railway bridge, Yanwath etc
Eamont Bridge Junction, Dacre
Penrith Junction, Penrith
Penrith Station, Penrith
railway bridge, Penrith
Kettleside Bridge, Penrith
Catterlen Bridge, Catterlen
railway bridge, Kitchenhill
railway bridge, Brockleymoor
Plumpton Station, Hesket
railway bridge, Hesket (6)
Calthwaite Station, Hesket
railway bridge, Hesket (2)
railway bridge, Hesket (3)
railway milepost, Hesket
railway bridge, Hesket (4)
railway bridge, Hesket (5)
railway bridge, Southwaite
Southwaite Station, Hesket
Birkthwaite Road Bridge, Hesket
railway bridge, St Cuthbert Without
Wreay Station, St Cuthbert Without
Brisco Station, St Cuthbert Without
Upperby Bridge Junction, Upperby
Upperby Junction West, Carlisle
LNWR Locomotive Works, Carlisle
LNWR Goods Depot, Carlisle
St Nicholas Bridges, Carlisle
MandC and LandC Junction, Carlisle
Carlisle Citadel Station, Carlisle
6.6.1844: authorized
1846: opened

Old Cumbria Gazetteer - JandMN: 2013

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