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placename:- Brocavum
locality:- Brougham Castle
parish Brougham parish, once in Westmorland
county:- Cumbria
roman fort
coordinates:- NY5328
10Km square:- NY52

1Km square NY5328

photograph

Brocavum -- Brougham Castle -- Brougham -- Cumbria / -- From the cross roads. -- 23.12.2005

old map:- OS County Series (Wmd 4 9)

County Series maps of Great Britain, scales 6 and 25 inches to 1 mile, published by the Ordnance Survey, Southampton, Hampshire, from about 1863 to 1948.

placename:- Brovacum
antiquity
date:- 1890=1899
period:- 19th century, late; 1890s

source:- Martineau 1855

Guide book, A Complete Guide to the English Lakes, by Harriet Martineau, published by John Garnett, Windermere, Westmorland, and by Whittaker and Co, London, 1855; published 1855-71.
Page 171:-
... Brougham, Burg-ham (meaning Castle-town) was the Brovacum of the Romans, where, as we learn from Nicolson and Burn, they had a company of Defensores, and left many tokens of their presence in antiquities which have come to light from time to time. ...

placename:- Brovacum
date:- 1855
period:- 19th century, late; 1850s

descriptive text:- Ford 1839 (3rd edn 1843)

Description of Scenery in the Lake District, by William Ford, published by Charles Thurnham, London, et al, 1839; published 1839-52.
Page 134:-
...
BROUGHAM CASTLE,
On the site of the Roman Brovoniacum, at the confluence of the Eamont and Lowther, where many Roman remains have been found. ...

placename:- Brovoniacum
date:- 1839
period:- 19th century, early; 1830s

old text:- Camden 1789 (Gough Additions)

Britannia, or A Chorographical Description of the Flourishing Kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland, by William Camden, 1586, translated from the 1607 Latin edition by Richard Gough, published London, 1789.
Page 160:-
...
It is agreed the BROUGHAM is the BROCAVUM of Antoninus' 5th Iter, not Brovoniacum, for there is no such name, but not the BRABONIACUM of the Notitia, which Gruter confounds with Brocavicum its Borcovicum. Antoninus's BROVONACAE, which Gale places at Kendal, and makes the same with Brocavum, is by Ward removed to Kirby Thor, or Whelp castle. Stukeley makes it Galava. Brougham castle stands within the station, and there is a fragment of an altar inscribed, PRO SE ET SVIS. L. L. M. remarkable only for the form of the stops. He says the Roman city lies on the east side of the Louther just by the castle, and is very easily traced. He saw many fragments of altars and inscriptions at the hall; and in the wall by the Roman road beyond the castle and near the countess of Pembroke's pillar a pretty busto part of a funeral monument, and further on another bas relievo much defaced. He imagined the high ground by this pillar, where most of the inscriptions were found, was the site of the city, rather perhaps of the pomaerium, or cemetery.
Horsley gives Mr. Camden's inscription here thus:
and refers it to Constantine the Great, but of a later date than that in his honor found in the wall. He doubts if it be the same which Mr. Camden saw. It is now at Appleby. Under it had been another inserted in the wall, whence the inscriptions at Appleby were taken, though now they are lying loose on the ground. The inscription on this other stone is modern, and perhaps by Mr. Bainbrigg:
i.e. Hic lapsis inventus est Brovonaci.
To this same station must be referred another inscription whose original Mr. Horsley would gladly have recovered, but was told two or three inscribed stones had lately been destroyed by masons at Appleby, and this might be one. Burton and Gale give it
which is to be read:
Page 161:-
...

placename:- Brocavum
date:- 1789
period:- 18th century, late; 1780s

old text:- Camden 1789

Britannia, or A Chorographical Description of the Flourishing Kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland, by William Camden, 1586, translated from the 1607 Latin edition by Richard Gough, published London, 1789.
Page 148:-
... BROVONIACUM, 20 Italian and 17 English miles from VERTERAE, as placed by Antoninus, who called it likewise Brocovum, as does the Notitia Broconiacum, adding that the Numerus Defensorum was stationed here. Though time has destroyed its buildings and glory, the name remains almost unaltered. For we still call it Brougham.

other name:- Brovoniacum
other name:- Brocovum
other name:- Broconiacum
date:- 1789
period:- 18th century, late; 1780s

old map:- Jefferys 1770 (Wmd)

Map, The County of Westmoreland, scale about 1 inch to 1 mile, surveyed by J Ainslie and perhaps T Donald, engraved and published by Thomas Jefferys, London, 1770.
thumbnail J5NY52NW, button to large image
Brovoniacum
antiquity

placename:- Brovoniacum
county:- Westmorland
date:- 1770
period:- 18th century, late; 1770s

descriptive text:- Defoe 1724-26 -- perhaps relevant

Travel book, Tour through England and Wales, by Daniel Defoe, published in parts, London, 1724-26.
The Roman highway, ... passing the Eden a little north from Perith, at an antient Roman station call'd Brovoniacum,

placename:- Brovoniacum
date:- 1724=1726
period:- 18th century, early; 1720s

old map:- Stukeley 1723

The roman name belongs elsewhere.
Map of roman roads through Britain, scale about 55 miles to 1 inch, derived from the Antonine Itineraries, plotted by William Stukeley, 1723, published London, 1724.
thumbnail Stu1Cm, button to large image
Galava / Overborough

placename:- Overborough
other name:- Galava
date:- 1723
period:- 18th century, early; 1720s

old map:- Morden 1695 (Wmd)

Maps, Westmorland, scale about 2.5 miles to 1 inch, and Cumberland, scale about 3 miles to 1 inch, by Robert Morden, 1695.
image MD10NY52, button   goto source.
thumbnail MD10NY52, button to large image
Bravon[i]acum

placename:- Bravoniacum
date:- 1695
period:- 17th century, late; 1690s

old map:- Speed 1611 (Wmd)

Maps, The Countie Westmorland and Kendale the Cheif Towne, scale about 3.5 miles to 1 inch, and Cumberland and the Ancient Citie Carlile, scale about 4 miles to 1 inch, by John Speed, London, 1611; published 1611-1770.
thumbnail SP14NY52, button to large image
BROCOVUM
no symbol

placename:- Brocovum
date:- 1611
period:- 17th century, early; 1610s

old map:- Horsley 1732

NB: Horsley's ideas are not all accepted today.
Map, Britannia Antiqua, by Johanne Horsley, 1732. (nb this is tentative data)
thumbnail HOR1Cm, button to large image
Brocavum / Brougham

placename:- Brocavum
other name:- Brougham
date:- 1732
period:- 18th century, late; 1780s

source:- Rivet and Smith 1979


placename:- Brocavum
other name:- Brocavo

photographs
tiny photograph, 
button to large Brocavum -- Brougham Castle -- Brougham -- Cumbria / -- Roman inscription (at Brougham Castle). -- 18.7.2010
tiny photograph, 
button to large Brocavum -- Brougham Castle -- Brougham -- Cumbria / -- Roman inscription (at Brougham Castle). -- 18.7.2010

Old Cumbria Gazetteer - JandMN: 2013

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