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placename:- Camboglanna
locality:- Hadrian's Wall
locality:- Cam Beck
locality:- Castlesteads
parish Walton parish, once in Cumberland
county:- Cumbria
roman fort
coordinates:- NY512634
10Km square:- NY56

1Km square NY5163

descriptive text:- Ford 1839 (3rd edn 1843)

Description of Scenery in the Lake District, by William Ford, published by Charles Thurnham, London, et al, 1839; published 1839-52.
Page 108:-
... Walton House ... built on the side of the Roman Casteads (sic). Several Roman remains dug up at this station are preserved here. ...

placename:- Roman Casteads
date:- 1839
period:- 19th century, early; 1830s

old text:- Camden 1789 (Gough Additions)

Britannia, or A Chorographical Description of the Flourishing Kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland, by William Camden, 1586, translated from the 1607 Latin edition by Richard Gough, published London, 1789.
Page 227, Mr Horsley:-
...
"CAMBECK fort, usually called Castle-steeds, is all grown over with wood, yet the boundaries of it may be traced out. It seems to have been about six chains square. It is detached to the south about 12 chains from the wall."

placename:- Cambeck Fort
other name:- Castle Steeds
person:- archaeologist : Horsley, John
date:- 1789
period:- 18th century, late; 1780s

old text:- Camden 1789 (Gough Additions)

Britannia, or A Chorographical Description of the Flourishing Kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland, by William Camden, 1586, translated from the 1607 Latin edition by Richard Gough, published London, 1789.
Page 201:-
...
The fort of Castlesteeds is almost opposite to Brampton, and stands on the south-east of Cambeck on a rising ground about a mile from and within the wall. It is an oblong square: from the south-east front the ground declines to the river Irthing; on which ground are visible foundations of walls and streets, but removed for the sake of buildings and tillage. On the other side is a steep bank, under which the Cammock beck or Cambeck runs coming from the wall. The outwalls are for the most part erased, probably to build a large dwelling-house, which from it takes the name of Castlesteed, and it still yields good stone of all sizes for building, most of them black as if the whole building had been burnt, and great numbers of iron nails, pieces of iron and brass run into lumps though now mouldering have been found; also square tiles about an inch thick with a ledge on one edge to hang them on roofs about 10 inches by 9, and of a yellow close earth, many earthen vessels of different shapes and colours broken in digging. The longest sides of the fort are about four Gunter's chains, and the shortest about two and an half. There are several foundations of houses still standing there pretty high but hard to come at for the bushes. A small cornelian seal was found some years ago, and several inscriptions, of which Mr. Goodman of Carlisle sent copies to Mr. Gale.
Mr. Goodman had two pieces of cast brass, each 36lb. weight, found in a peat moss two feet deep adjoining to the Roman road in Cumberland, supposed heads of a catapulta. Sir Joseph Aylosse shewed them to the Society of Antiquaries 1736, and a model was made for them in wood.
At Cambeck fort or Castlesteeds in Irthington parish (the only place to which the name of Castlesteeds has been given, it being the general name given to all the military castella), Mr. Horsley places VOREDA or PETRIANA of the Notitia. It is all grown over with wood, yet the boundaries may be traced. It seems to have been about six chains square, and is detached from the wall to the south about 12 chains. To this belong the the ten following inscriptions:
found in the wall near a cottage called Randylands, more than half way from hence to Burdoswald; the letters well cut.
Page 202:-
E civitate Catuvellaunorum Titus Oisedio posuit. This is in the fore wall of a house at Howgill about half a mile farther west than Randylands. It commemorates the people called by (Dio LX.20.) Κα[τ ]ελλανοι, and by Ptolemy incorrectly Κα[τ]ινενχλανοι, by producing the transverse stroke of the first λ. Oisedio was a Britan with a Roman praenomen.
3. Two reliefs, now at Netherby, before-mentioned.
found in the east part of the station near the gate.
5. An altar removed to Kirklinton, and now at Netherby, found with the face downward near Brampton near the east entry as if in the south jamb of the gate with several pieces of pots or urns, &c..
The inscription is to be read,
Over the first lines are traces of BVS, whence Mr. Gale and Mr. Ward conjecture VICTORIBVS as on the coins of Constantine, Constantius, Chlorus, and Maximian, VICTOR OMNIVM GENTIVM.
Discovered by Mr. Gordon who gave it to lord Hertford. Four more before-mentioned at Scaleby castle. Here have been also found several curious stones cut with cross lines lattice fashion, like that at Harlow hill, Northumberland, Horsl. XXXI. A small bronze figure, bearded, with curled hair, was found here 1766.
An altar, having on one side a kind of double trident, on another a patera, and on a 3d the inscription, Pl.XIII. fig.13. It was dug up here about 60 years before and buried again in lord Carlisle's wear, with two or three more inscribed stones, as some old men related. On repairing the wear 1741, it was sought for, and carried by Mrs. Appleby's order to the court of her house there. The inscription is thus read by professor Ward:
We have numini domini nostri in Horlsey's Northumberland, LXXX. Instante is equivalent to curante on some other inscription. But the most considerable doubt which occurs in the inscription is that it makes the emperor Gordian colleague with Pompeianus in his 3d consulate, which the Fasti consulares ascribe to his 2d. Nor is any mention made of this 3d consulate anywhere but here and in another inscription given to us by Gruter, p.MLXXV. 10. which Mr. Ward concludes, therefore, must be a mistake, especially since in several of Gruter's inscriptions Pompeianus is joined with him in his 2d consulate agreeably to the Fasti. The two fragments of the glass bowl with the name AKTAIΩN on one and a dog's head on the other, cut, as supposed, with an adamant, are very curious.
Mr. Gale observes, that the cohors mentioned here, though inferior in number, seem to have had the preference in dignity, being also honoured with the name Gordiana after the emperor. It must also have been the first cohort of the legion it belonged to; for Vegetius tells us, that the first cohort of the legion was called Milliaria, and consisted of 1105 foot and 132 horse; and as the several cohorts of a legion and their auxiliaries bore the same proportion to each other, so the first auxiliary cohort must have contained as many in number as the first legionary cohort, and though this might have been the 2d of the Tungri as perhaps levied after the first, it might be the first of the wing to which it belonged, and dignified with these honourable titles for some peculiar merit. Neither is it improbable that it might belong to the Ala Aug. Gordiana ob virtutem appellata quartered in this country. Mr. Gale was further of opinion, that CL must be numeral, for though the true number of horse in a cohort is said to be no more than 132, as that was not always certain, especially in the lower empire, this cohort of Tungri might chance to have a few more in it than usual, and that might be a very good reason to express it on this stone, it being of some consideration to be more numerous than the others. Instante may occur in the very imperfect inscription given by Horsley, Scotland, 7. XXXIX. INS. So we have --- instans operi regnisque futuris, AEn. I. 504. and instans operibus, Plin. Paneg. c.18. Princ for Principe in the ninth line is the proper name of a man, and occurs often in Gruter. There being no cross stroke in the N of MARTIN it is to be read Martino not Martiano. X KALI is decimo kal. Januarii, Junii, or Julii. IMP DNG AVG III. he believed must be read Imperatore Domino nostro Gordinano Augusto tertio, and what follows, Pompeiano consulibus, and that it is no mistake of the emperor being the 3d time consul instead of the 2d, for in Gruter he is mentioned as consul the 2d time with
Page 203:-
Pompeianus, and as it was in the 4th year of his reign that he was consul with him, these numerals cannot refer to a 3d consulate which he never took, but must relate to his being the 3d emperor of that name. If it be objected that it was not usual for the Roman emperors to style themselves I. II. III. Mr. Gale answers that there never were three of the same name thus nearly preceding each other as the three Gordians, if at any time: however, the inscription in Gruter, p.MLXXXV. must include a mistake where it represents this Gordianus P.M. TRIB. POT. COS. III. P.P. the III. immediately followed COS, and so cannot be applied to any other word, but is a palpable mistake of the stone-cutter.
In the wood where the fort has been Mr. Appleby found a Roman hypocaust, a regular clay floor with above 100 pillars on it about two feet high, and between every two of them a hollow parallelopipedon of burnt clay, 16 inches long and six wide, with a hole through the opposite side serving as flues. It was five yards by nine within the walls: and on the pillars was another floor of white stone, about an inch thick, curiously cemented for the bath. There was also found the bottom and sides of an iron grate, and some pieces of charcoal were lying scattered up and down on the floor. Adjoining to the south wall where the grate stood were two rooms, supported in the same manner with pillars and flues, and the floors paved as the baths with the addition of a curious cemented composition of lime, brick, dust, and pebbles, at least four inches thick, spread over the stone, of a wonderful hardness. Many other curious floors were found among the ruins and some coal-ashes: but these were supposed of later date, as well as several other articles found here. There was also a cold bath found near the place, and not far from it something like a cistern about five yards by 1½, composed of thick slate stones, very large and set edgewise, well cemented together.
The two inscriptions, mentioned by Mr. Camden, as discovered at Castlesteeds and Trederman hard by, Mr. Horsley could no where find. Trederman is much nearer Burdoswald than Cambeck, and there is nothing of Roman antiquity in that castle or about it: nor are they at Naworth, where is half an altar standing in a gate, which Mr. Horsley could not think had any relation to them. There is also a large altar built up in the jamb of a chimney at Whitefield, about a mile west from this fort, which the old people said was brought from hence or a part of the wall very near it. But it is so defaced that not a letter is visible on it. No decisive conjectures can therefore be offered on these two inscriptions.
In Holland's edition is the following inscription given as lately found on a fair votive altar erected to the goddess Nymphe of the Brigantes for the health of the empress Plautilla wife to M. Aurelius Antoninus Severus, and the whole imperial family by Cocceius Nigrinus, a treasurer to the emperor, when Laetus was 2d time consul:
which intricate connexion of letters the Doctor read,
It is not in the additions to the edition of 1722, nor could Mr. Horsley find it, but he was of opinion it should be referred to some part near Cambeck or Brampton.
...

other name:- Castlesteeds
other name:- Cambeck Fort
other name:- Voreda
other name:- Petriana
date:- 1789
person:- : Goodman, Mr
person:- : Gale, Mr
person:- : Aylosse, Joseph, Sir
person:- archaeologist : Horsley, John
person:- : Ward, Professor
person:- : Appleby, Mr
person:- : Appleby, Mrs
person:- : Gordon Mr
person:- : Hertford, Lord
period:- 18th century, late; 1780s

old text:- Camden 1789

Britannia, or A Chorographical Description of the Flourishing Kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland, by William Camden, 1586, translated from the 1607 Latin edition by Richard Gough, published London, 1789.
Page 176:-
... Under this [?Brampton] and at Castle steeds, q.d. Castle place, as also at Trederman were found these inscriptions, which the right hon. lord William Howard of Naworth, 3d son of the most noble Thomas duke of Norfolk, and an attentive and learned searcher into venerable antiquity, who possesses estates hereabouts in right of his wife, sister and coheir of the last baron Dacre, copied for me with his own hand: See Pl. VIII. fig.8 The following there also in an antient hypocaust, in which the name of the Legatus Augusti and Propraetor in Britain is unfortunately lost: See Pl. VIII. fig.9.

placename:- Castle Steeds
other name:- Castle Place
person:- : Howard, William, Lord
date:- 1789
period:- 18th century, late; 1780s

old text:- Clarke 1787

Guide book, A Survey of the Lakes of Cumberland, Westmorland, and Lancashire, by James Clarke, Penrith, Cumberland, and in London etc, 1787 and 1789; and Plans of the Lakes ... 1793.
Page 105:-
...
I do not find any ancient authors mention a castle here [Castlerigg], Speed, who speaks of twenty-five in Cumberland, hath found out every one I ever heard or knew of, except Kirkoswald; how that has escaped him I cannot tell. I shall here put down their names, and, as well as I can, their most ancient owners, and supposed founders.
...
Page 106:-
...
5. CASTLESTEADS, - By the Romans, close by the Picts wall, but has been long in ruins; was once the seat of the Moultons - Camb.
...

placename:- Castlesteads
person:- : Moulton Family
person:- : Romans
date:- 1787
period:- 18th century, late; 1780s

old print:-
thumbnail PR0265, button to large image
Print, uncoloured engraving, Roman Antiquities at Castlesteeds, Cumberland, engraved by Basire, perhaps 1770s-80s.
Plate 11, figures 8 to 12 of vol.11 p.66; two roman altars and other items.
printed at bottom right, centre:-
[Basire Sc] / Roman Antiquities at Castlesteeds in Cumberland.

placename:- Castlesteeds
date:- 1770=1789
period:- 18th century, late

text:- Rivet and Smith 1979

The roman fort at Castlesteads, Cumberland, besides the Cam Beck.

placename:- Camboglanna
other name:- Gabaglanda
other name:- Cambroianna
other name:- Amboglanna

photographs
tiny photograph, 
button to large Camboglanna -- Hadrian's Wall -- Cam Beck -- Castlesteads -- Walton -- Cumbria / -- From Hutchinson 1794 map 2. -- 'PETRIANA'

Old Cumbria Gazetteer - JandMN: 2013

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