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placename:- Westmorland
other name:- Westmoreland
county:- Cumbria
county, old

source:- Martineau 1855

Guide book, A Complete Guide to the English Lakes, by Harriet Martineau, published by John Garnett, Windermere, Westmorland, and by Whittaker and Co, London, 1855; published 1855-71.
Page 57:-
A DAY ON THE MOUNTAINS.
... There is one thing more that he [the stranger] must do before he goes on into Cumberland. He must spend a day on the Mountains: and if alone, so much the better. If he knows what it is to spend a day so far above the every-day world, he is aware that it is good to be alone, (unless there is danger in the case); and, if he is a novice, let him try whether it be not so. Let him go forth early with a stout stick in his hand, provision for the day in his knapsack or his pocket; and, if he choose, a book: but we do not think he will read to-day. A map is essential, to explain to him what he sees: and it is very well to have a pocket compass, in case of sudden fog, or any awkward doubt about the way. In case of an ascent of a formidable mountain, like Scawfell or Helvellyn, it is rash to go without a guide: but our tourist shall undertake something more moderate, and reasonably safe, for a beginning.
Page 165:-
... There are two cairns on two summits [of Helvellyn], not far apart, ... These Men, (as such piles of stones are called) mark the
Page 166:-
dividing line between Cumberland and Westmorland. ...
person:- mountain guide
date:- 1855
period:- 19th century, late; 1850s

descriptive text:- Ford 1839 (3rd edn 1843)

Description of Scenery in the Lake District, by William Ford, published by Charles Thurnham, London, et al, 1839; published 1839-52.
THE Lake district extends over a portion of the three counties of Cumberland, Westmorland, and Lancashire, being bounded on the south and west by the sea, which combines beautifully from many elevated points with the inland scenery, and occupying an area of about thirty miles in diameter. It consists of large masses or clusters of mountains, generally terminating in one aspiring and pre-eminent point, with the intermediate valleys occupied either by lakes and their subsidiary tarns, or by winding rivers.

placename:- Westmorland
date:- 1839
period:- 19th century, early; 1830s

old map:- Cobbett 1832

Maps, Westmoreland and Cumberland, by William Cobbett, 11 Bolt Court, Fleet street, London, 1832.
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WESTMORELAND
in a plain cartouche; the county shape is badly distorted

placename:- WESTMORELAND
county:- Westmorland
date:- 1832
period:- 19th century, early; 1830s

descriptive text:- Otley 1823 (5th edn 1834)

Guidebook, Concise Description of the English Lakes, later A Description of the English Lakes, by Jonathan Otley, published by the author, Keswick, Cumberland, by J Richardson, London, and by Arthur Foster, Kirky Lonsdale, Cumbria, 1823 onwards.
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Page 1:-
DESCRIPTION OF THE ENGLISH LAKES AND ADJACENT MOUNTAINS.
THE LAKES.
THE Mountainous District, in which the English Lakes are situated, extends into three Counties, Cumberland, Westmorland, and Lancashire, which form their junction at a point upon the mountain Wrynose, near the road side. Lancashire is separated from Cumberland by the river Duddon; from Westmorland by the stream running through Little Langdale, and by Elterwater and Windermere, until south of Storrs Hall; after which the river Winster forms the boundary till it enters the sands near Medup; and the latter county is parted from Cumberland by the mountain ridge leading over Bowfell to Dunmail Raise, from thence over the top of Helvellyn, and through Glencoin
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Page 2:-
to Ullswater, and by the river Eamont till it enters the Eden. Windermere Lake is said to belong to Westmorland, at least its islands are claimed by that county; although the whole of its western and part of its eastern shores belong to Lancashire. Coniston and Esthwaite Lakes, with Blelham and the tarns of Coniston, are wholly in Lancashire. Grasmere, Rydal, and Hawes Water, with several tarns, lie in Westmorland. The head of Ullswater is in Westmorland, but below Glencoin it constitutes the boundary between that and Cumberland. Derwent, Bassenthwaite, Buttermere, Ennerdale, and Wastwater, are in Cumberland.
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... The road entering Lancashire at Brathay, or at Skelwith Bridge, leaves it again at Colwith Bridge; ...
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... Near the road on Wrynose are the three shire stones of Cumberland, Westmorland, and Lancashire.
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... Dunmail Raise ... At the highest part of the road, a wall separates the counties of Westmorland and Cumberland; ...
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THE GEOLOGY OF THE LAKE DISTRICT.
AT the time this essay was first published, the structure of the mountainous district of Cumberland, Westmorland, and Lancashire, was but little understood; scientific travellers had contented themselves with procuring specimens of the different rocks, without taking time to become acquainted with their relative position. Since then, the subject has received more attention from persons conversant with geological inquiries; especially from the distinguished Professor Sedgwick. ...
person:- geologist : Sedgwick, Adam
date:- 1823
period:- 19th century, early; 1820s

old map:- Perrot 1823

Map, Cumberland, Westmoreland, scale about 38 miles to 1 inch, by Aristide Michel Perrot, engraved by Migneret, 1823, published by Etienne Ledoux, 9 Rue Guenegaud, Paris, France, 1824; published 1824-48.
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WESTMORELAND
county

placename:- Westmoreland
date:- 1823
period:- 19th century, early; 1820s

old map:- Hall 1820 (Wmd)

Map, Westmoreland ie Westmorland, now Cumbria, scale about 14.5 miles to 1 inch, by Sidney Hall, London, 1820, published by Samuel Leigh, 18 Strand, London, 1820-31.
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Westmoreland
in title cartouche; county

placename:- Westmoreland
county:- Westmorland
date:- 1820
period:- 19th century, early; 1820s

descriptive text:- Wallis 1810

Map, Westmoreland ie Westmorland, now Cumbria, scale about 19 miles to 1 inch, by James Wallis, 77 Berwick Street, Soho, London, 1810; published 1810-36.
Westmoreland.
Is an inland county, in the N.W. part of England, having Yorkshire on the E.; Lancashire on the S. and S.W.; and Cumberland on the N. and N.W. A part of Durham also bounds it on the N.E. It is in the province of York, is included in the northern circuit, and sends four members to parliament. It is divided into four hundreds, containing eight market-towns, and 32 parishes. The chief mannfactures (sic) are stocking and woollen cloth. Westmoreland received its name from its situation to the W., and the principal part of it being formerly moorish barren land. Population, 45,922.

placename:- Westmoreland
date:- 1810
period:- 19th century, early; 1810s

descriptive text:- Luffman 1803

Map, Westmoreland, scale about 37 miles to 1 inch, by John Luffman, 28 Little Bell Alley, Coleman Street, London, published 1803-06; and similar map of Cumberland.
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WESTMORELAND is 45 miles in length from east to west, and 33 in breadth from north to south. It is divided into 2 baronies, which contain 8 market towns, 26 parishes, 8,212 houses; and the population amounts to 41,617.
The air is clear, sharp, and healthy; the soil various; the mountainous part very barren, and the vales altogether as fertile. Copper mines, and, it is said, some veins of gold, are in the mountains. The hams cured in this county are of excellent flavour. The principal rivers are the Eden, the Lone, and the Ken. It has also several fine lakes, the chief of which is Winander-Mere.

placename:- Westmoreland
date:- 1803
period:- 19th century, early; 1800s

old map:- Cooke 1802

Maps, Westmoreland, Cumberland, etc, now Cumbria, by George Alexander Cooke, London, 1802-10; published 1802-24.
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WESTMORELAND
map title

placename:- Westmoreland
county:- Westmorland
date:- 1802
period:- 19th century, early; 1800s

old text:- Camden 1789 (Gough Additions)

Britannia, or A Chorographical Description of the Flourishing Kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland, by William Camden, 1586, translated from the 1607 Latin edition by Richard Gough, published London, 1789.
Page 150:-
...
WESTMORLAND is about 40 miles long by as many broad, and 140 miles in circumference, contains 510,000 acres, four wards, seven market and two borough towns, 32 large parishes, and about 6500 houses. The air is sharp and healthy. The soil in the hills is barren and moory yet affording pasture for store of sheep; the vallies are fertile in corn and near the rivers in grass..
Mr. Camden's description of the county answers only to that part from Lancaster through the barony of Kendal to Workington in Cumberland, which is a mountainous tract. Whereas the barony of Westmorland, commonly called from its low situation the bottom of Westmorland, is a large open champion country, not less than 20 miles long and about 14 broad, affording great plenty of arable land and corn. Nor do mores in the north parts signify wild barren mountains, but generally common of pasture, in opposition to fells or mountains; so that in Kendal barony where they have most mountains, there are few or no mores, their commons being generally called fells, and in the bottom of Westmorland there are few mountains (except that ridge which binds the county like a rampire or bulwark), but many mores which have ridges that still appear and shew to have been formerly plowed, having probably been deserted for situations more favourable to agriculture.
Archbishop Usher does not so much controvert the history of king Marius whatever becomes of the derivation of the name of Westmorland from him.
Dr. Burn correcting Mr. Camden's etymology denies that the name of this county is derivable from moors, it being universally written in old records Westmerland. He does not seem to have been aware that it might imply the land or county of the Western mere or boundary between England and Scotland.
Though mountains, or as they are called in the language of the country, fells, compose a large part of it, they are not altogether unprofitable. They feed large flocks of sheep, produce plenty of grouse or moor game, abound with rivulets which water the vallies beneath, and yield a great fund of minerals, lead, and coal, copper, and oker, and Silver-band fell silver; and in the western fells is found fine blue slate which supplies several parts of the kingdom, not to mention the spars and imitations of diamonds, coralloids, fossils, and marbles.
The rivers of this county are but small, and only three that can properly be called rivers carry their name to the sea: ... Eden ... Lune or Lon ... Kent ...
...
In the hollows among the mountains are found divers large lakes, having small rivulets running through them, which preserve the water clear, the lakes having commonly a pebbly or rocky bottom.
... All these bodies of water abound with divers species of fish, as trout, eels, bass, perch, tench, roach, pike, char and divers others. The south coast is pretty well furnished with sea-fish, of which upwards of thirty different sorts have been brought to Kendal market, till by the improvement of the town and port of Lancaster the market for fish is considerably drawn that way.
This county long after the Conquest appears to have been covered with wood: but it was probably destroyed on purpose to prevent it affording shelter to the Scotch invaders. Large trunks of oak, fir, birch, and other trees, which shew the mark of the ax, lie near to their respective roots in the mosses which have formed over them by the stoppage of the water.
The helm wind is a phoenomenon peculiar to this county and the confines of Yorkshire and Lancashire, about Ingleborough, Pendle, and Penigent. A rolling cloud hovers over the mountain tops for three or four days together when the rest of the sky is clear, and continues notwithstanding the most violent hurricane and profound calm alternately succeeding each other.
The gentlemen's houses in this county are large and strong, generally built castlewise for security of themselves and their tenants with their goods against the inroads of the Scots.
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The great Roman road passed through this county from Stanemore to Brougham castle, ... Maiden way, ... Beside these two Roman roads there are in this county eight good turnpike ones.
The country though barren is populous, and the inhabitants civilized; which advantage Dr. Burn ascribes to the institution of small schools in almost every village. Here are large remains of the antient feudal policy, retained longer in these parts by reason of the particular military tenure against the Scots. These lands were first granted out in large districts by William the Conqueror and his successors to certain great Norman barons. These parcelled them out to inferior lords, and they again granted them to individuals. And they seem to have extended this regulation as far as it would go. The soldier's estate from the number of antient tenements in the several manors appears to have been small, as what would now let for about 10 or 12l. per annum. And besides the general military service in the king's wars at home and abroad, the tenants in the borders were liable to be called out in the particular service against the Scots, at the command of the lords wardens of the marches. Even the very diversions of the children still have a reference to this border enmity. The boys to this day have a play called Scotch and English, an exact picture in miniature of the raid or inroad, and a very active and violent recreation.
The common people eat oaten bread as in Scotland, and oats are imported weekly out of Cumberland and the adjoining counties of York, Lancaster, and Durham. They breed great numbers of cattle, and export largely butter and hams.
This county is divided into the barony of Kendal and the barony of Westmorland, in later times called the barony of Appleby. The former belongs to the diocese of Chester, the latter to that of Carlisle. In each barony we find two wards, being districts of the like number of high-constables, who presided over the wards to be sustained at certain fords and other places for repelling plundering parties out of Scotland. Two of these wards are in Kendal Barony, Kendale and Lonsdale wards; and two in the bottom called East and West wards. There was antiently a middle ward between the two last, but since watching and warding ceased it has fallen into the other two.
It is a mistake that in antient times these parts paid no subsidy, being sufficiently charged in the border service against the Scots; for we find all along collectors of the subsidies here granted both by clergy and laity from the reign of Edward III. downwards, and taking all the taxes together we shall find this country pays more to government in proportion to the wealth of the inhabitants than any county in the kingdom.
In the Domesday survey an account is taken of many places within the barony of Kendal, together with the adjoining places in Lancaster and Yorkshire, whereas of Westmorland properly so called no survey was made, it being all wasted and destroyed and worth nothing. This barony extended a good way into that part which is now called the bottom of Westmorland, particularly into almost all the west part comprehending the greatest part of the parishes of Barton, Lowther, and Morland. But now the boundary of Kendal barony as distinguished from the bottom of Westmorland is the same nearly as the boundary of the several parishes of Gresmere and Kendal on one side and Barton, Shap, and Orton on the other. It is in the diocese of Chester, and has two rural deaneries of Kendal and Kirkby Lonsdale, both of which extend into the adjoining parts of Lancaster. The bottom of Westmorland is in the diocese of Carlisle, and is all one rural deanry called the deanry of Westmorland.
The general military tenure of this county was by homage, fealty, and cornage; which last seems peculiar to the border service, and drew after it wardship, marriage, and relief, and the service of this tenure was knight service. Cornage was early converted into pecuniary payment, and White rent was the lord's rent paid in silver. Scutage was another service or compensation in money instead of personal service against the Scots. A knight's fee in these northern counties according to the register of Wetheral priory was estimated not according to quality but quantity of the land. According to that register 10 acres made one ferndell, four ferndells a virgate (which is half a carucate), four virgates one hide, and four hides a knight's fee: so that the knight's fee in this case would amount to 640 acres. The value of these appears to have been ascertained at the time of Magna Charta, which fixes the relief to be paid for a knight's fee at 5l. and as the relief in all the cases there specified was after the rate of a quarter of the yearly value of the fee, it follows that knight's fee was then estimated at 20l. per ann..
The last tenure to be explained in this county, and which has puzzled former antiquaries, is drengage, which Dr. Burn proves to be the most servile of all tenures, in opposition to the free tenants, who were so called because they were not villains or bondmen. For other customary tenures in this county I must refer to Dr. Burn.
"In Westmorland is but one good market town called Kendale, otherwise, as I wene, Kirkby Kendale. ...
date:- 1789
period:- 18th century, late; 1780s

old text:- Camden 1789

Britannia, or A Chorographical Description of the Flourishing Kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland, by William Camden, 1586, translated from the 1607 Latin edition by Richard Gough, published London, 1789.
Page 147:-
WESTMORLAND.
AT the extremity of Lancashire more to the north is another small tract of the Brigantes, called by Latin writers Westmorlandia, by us Westmoreland, and by some later writers Westmaria; bounded on the west and north by Cumberland, on the east by the counties of York and Durham. It has its name in our language from its lying intirely among high mountains (our Apennines extending themselves still further here in breadth), and for the greater part waste; desart tracts capable of little improvement from cultivation being called in the north of England Mores, and West-more-land meaning nothing more with us than a waste country to the West. Let us therefore banish from the school of venerable antiquity that idle dream about king Marius, whom our sleepy historians fancied to have subdued the Picts, and left his name to this county. ...

placename:- Westmorland
other name:- Westmorlandia
other name:- Westmoreland
other name:- Westmaria
date:- 1789
period:- 18th century, late; 1780s

old text:- Camden 1789

Britannia, or A Chorographical Description of the Flourishing Kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland, by William Camden, 1586, translated from the 1607 Latin edition by Richard Gough, published London, 1789.
Page 149:-
...
The first lord of Westmoreland that I have met with was Robert de Veteriponte, or de Vipont, who bore for his arms G. six annulets Or. King John gave him "the bailliwik and revenues of Westmoreland for four knights fees," whence the Cliffords his successors to this day hold the office of Sheriff of Westmoreland. For the last Robert de Vipont left only two daughters Sybill, wife of Roger lord Clifford, and Idonea, married to Roger de Leybourne. A long while after this king Richard II. created first earl of Westmoreland Radulphus de Novavilla, or Neville, lord of Raby, a man of high and antient Saxon nobility, descended from Uchtred, earl of Northumberland. His descendants by his first wife M. daughter of the earl of Stafford, enjoyed this title till Charles forming a conspiracy as vain as wicked against Queen Elizabeth, and being obliged to fly his country, disgraced that noble family, stained his own glories, and ended his life in wretched exile in the Netherlands. ...
In this county are 26 populous parishes.

placename:- Westmoreland
person:- : Vipont, Robert de
person:- : Vipont Family
person:- : Clifford Family
person:- : Westmorland, Sheriff of
person:- : Richard II
person:- : Westmorland, Earl of; Novavilla, Radulphus de Novavilla; Neville, Radulphus
person:- : Neville, Charles
person:- : Elizabeth I
person:- : Lords Wardens of the Marches
date:- 1789
period:- 18th century, late; 1780s

old text:- Clarke 1787

Guide book, A Survey of the Lakes of Cumberland, Westmorland, and Lancashire, by James Clarke, Penrith, Cumberland, and in London etc, 1787 and 1789; and Plans of the Lakes ... 1793.
Page 8:-
...
Westmorland contains only one borough, namely Appleby, and sends four mem-
Page 9:-
[mem]bers to Parliament. It is very like Cumberland in its soil and climate, and similarity of manners is every where to be found in both. Dr Falconer, in a learned and elegant paper, published in the Memoirs of the Literary Society of Manchester, has proved almost to demonstration, that the scenery of a country has the greatest share in forming the manners of its inhabitants: but to this I must add another source equally powerful, the necessities of situation.
The contemplation of barren heaths, bleak, rocky mountains, and almost impassable swamps and mosses, will naturally fill the mind with gloomy and uncomfortable ideas; but when the inhabitant has his daily sustenance to collect from these dreary wilds, he will alternately starve and gluttonize. If he is one day pinched with hunger, he will, if the next affords him a prey, fall to with the voracity of a wolf. Can we then wonder, that people so situated should have frequent quarrels with their neighbours? Can we wonder that they should, by every species of cruelty, endeavour to terrify their neighbours from attacking them, where we must be sensible that they have only the dreadful alternative to massacre their invaders, or perish by hunger? When necessity has thus begun the practice of cruelty, a spirit of revenge keeps it alive, till custom rivets it too fast to be easily removed.
In every country where this is not the case, a spirit of humanity in general keeps time with martial ardour. The vanquished yielding enemy is considered as not only entitled to mercy, but protection: the valour he has that day shewn, though at the expence of the noblest blood of the victors, increases the respect shewn him; and no one ever thinks of revenging at that time the death of a father, a son, or a brother. The Israelites were perhaps the only civilized nation that ever massacred a vanquished enemy in cool blood; nor were they contented with death alone, for they tortured them in the most cruel manner; "they hewed them to pieces with axes, and tore them with harrows." It is true, they pretended a divine mandate for this; but what age has not produced some crafty, designing priest, of art and impudence sufficient to gloss over the blackest crimes! The situation of the countries I am here describing is such, that they are extremely beautiful in Summer, and equally cold, bleak, and uncomfortable in Winter; and as we know that agriculture has been very lately improved, or ever introduced here, we may conclude that the necessities of them were much varied. In Summer, the inhabitants would live pleasantly and plentifully enough by hunting and fishing; but in Winter, (before the art of preserving meat by the means of salt was discovered,) their fare must have been very precarious. This would naturally enough introduce the desire of those conveniences their neighbours might chance to enjoy; and among people where legislature is very imperfect, as theirs was till very lately, the next step is plunder. The consequences of these primeval habits are scarcely yet worn out. We find, very late in the annals of history, the inhabitants of these northern counties marked as despising danger to a great degree: most of their ways of speaking of it are ludicrous; and whoever has seen them engaged in their favourite amusement, the Foot-ball, will perceive that even their diversions were hazardous. With all this ferocity, there was, however, a strong tincture of generosity; history, tradition, and the old popular ballads confirm it by numerous instances. Even among the inhabitants of the debateable ground there was a kind of principle of honour mixed with their thefts; for, though outlaws from both kingdoms, and punished with death when taken, they seldom or never did violence to the person of the traveller, and have even been known to do actions of the highest generosity to those whose misfortunes needed such assistance. This is, as far as I can determine, the real character of the northern counties: I shall only add, that the spirit of these people, though changed from its original channel, is not lost; for now it breaks out in obstinate lawsuits, as the learned counsellors who attend this circuit can avouch.
...
date:- 1787
period:- 18th century, late; 1780s

descriptive text:- West 1778 (11th edn 1821)

Guide book, A Guide to the Lakes, by Thomas West, published by William Pennington, Kendal, Cumbria once Westmorland, and in London, 1778 to 1821.
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Addendum; Mr Gray's Journal, 1769
Page 210:-
...
Oct. 8. I left Keswick, and took the Ambleside road, ...
... soon after a beck near Dunmail-raise, where I entered Westmorland a second time: ...

placename:- Westmorland
date:- 1769
period:- 18th century, late; 1760s

descriptive text:- Bickham 1753-54 (Wmd)

Maps, A Map of Westmorland, 1753, and A Map of Cumberland, 1754, by George Bickham, published 1750s-96.
WESTMORELAND.
Westmoreland is bounded on the North and West by Cumberland and a detach'd Part of Lancashire, on the South by Lancashire, and in the East by Yorkshire and a Bit of Durham. Principal Rivers are the Lone, the Kan, & the Eden. The Standing waters of Winander Mere, and Ulles-Lake are also famous in this County.
The sharp and clear Air is healthy to the Natives and robust Strangers. The hilly Soil is very barren, but the Vallies are tolerably fertile in Corn and Grass. In the Western Hills are Quantities of Copper-Ore, with some veins of Gold, but not worth the Expence of digging. Stockings are the chief Manufacture, but Coth, and Stuffs are also made at Kendal.
Members of Parliament are two for the County, and two for the Borough of Appleby.
...
date:- 1753
period:- 18th century, late; 1750s

old map:- Simpson 1746 map (Wmd)

Maps, Westmorland, scale about 8 miles to 1 inch, and Cumberland? in The Agreeable Historian by Samuel Simpson, printed by R Walker, Fleet Lane, London, 1746.
WESTMORLAND

placename:- Westmorland
date:- 1746
period:- 18th century, early; 1740s

descriptive text:- Simpson 1746

The three volumes of maps and descriptive text published as 'The Agreeable Historian, or the Compleat English Traveller ...', by Samuel Simpson, 1746.
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WESTMORELAND.
THIS is an Inland County, which has Lancashire on the South and South west; Cumberland on the West and North-west; and Yorkshire and the Bishoprick of Durham on the East and North-east. 'Tis commonly reckoned 30 Miles in Length, but not above 24 in Breadth, and about 120 in Compass. containing 510000 Acres of Land. Mr. Templeman makes it 36 Miles in Length, and 34 in Breadth, and gives it an Area of 633 square Miles.
'Tis divided into the Barony of Westmoreland, which is a large, open, champain County, belonging to the Diocese of Carlisle, twenty Miles long, and fourteen broad; and the Barony of Kendal, which is full of Mountains, and belongs to the Diocese of Chester. Both these are subdivided into two Wards, each of which contains thirty-two Parishes, wherein are many Chapels of Ease, eight Market-towns, of which one only is a parliamentary Borough; and about 6600 Houses. In each of these Divisions are several Deaneries and Constablewicks, but no Hundreds, perhaps because anciently these Parts paid no Subsidies, being sufficiently charg'd in the Border-service against the Scots. The Gentlemens Houses in this County are large and strong, and generally built Castle-wise, for Defence of themselves, their Tenants, and their Goods, against the Scots Incursions, which before the Time of King James I. were very common.
The Barony, or Bottom (as 'tis also call'd from its low Situation) of Westmoreland, which is the northern Part, affords Plenty of arable Land, which bears good Store of Corn. The Barony of Kendale, or Candalia, which is the southern Part of the County, and so called from the River Can, which runs along the Valley, is pent up for [some]
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Page 1020:-
some Space in a narrow Compass between the River Lone on the East, and Winander mere on the West, and has some Rocks as well as Mountains, but is pretty fruitful in the Vallies, especially in the Meadows, near the Rivers; and its Mountains have good Pasture for Sheep, with Copper Ore in some Parts.
Its Air is sweet, healthful, and pleasant, but somewhat sharp in the mountainous Parts.
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...
Besides Pit-coal, this County abounds with other Fuel, there being Plenty of Wood upon the Mountains in the Barony of Kendal; and there are divers Forests in the Barony of Westmoreland, as Whinfield-Forest in the Peninsula between the Rivers Eimot and Eden; Martindale-Forest, which extends almost the whole Length of Ulleswater; Thornthwait Forest, Mallerstang, Milborn, and Melden-Forests; besides divers Parks, which are well stock'd with Wood in both Baronies.
This County gave formerly Title of Baron to the Family of Vipont, and afterwards of Earl, first to the Family of Nevil, and then to that of Fane, which now enjoys it. It sends only four Members to Parliament, viz. two for the County and two for [Appleby]
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... Brompton makes mention of Applebyshire, and 'tis supposed that it [Appleby] had once Sheriffs of its own, as most Cities had; or else that Westmoreland was called the County of Appleby or Applebyshire. ...

placename:- Westmoreland
other name:- Applebyshire
other name:- County of Appleby
person:- : Vipont Family
person:- : Nevil Family
person:- : Fane Family
date:- 1746
period:- 18th century, early; 1740s

old map:- Badeslade 1742

A Map of Westmorland North from London, scale about 10 miles to 1 inch, and descriptive text, Cumberland similarly, by Thomas Badeslade, London, engraved and published by William Henry Toms, Union Court, Holborn, London, 1742.
Westmorland sends 4 members to Parliament, containing one Borough, 8 Market Towns, and 26 large Parishes.
...
The W. side of this County is divided from Cumberland by Winander Meer, & the River Winster. The N.W. Boundary is the River Eimot, which receives the Loder, and at last unites with the Eden. The S. part of the County is divided into 2 by the Can or Ken, which gives name to Kendale & the Lone or Lune after having received the River Burrow is the Boundary to Yorkshire, then passes by Kirby Lonsdale into Lancashire. The River Eden rises in the E. part of the County, receives first the little River Belo, afterwards Blenkern, & at the N. point unites with Eimot, and flows into Cumberland.

placename:- Westmorland
date:- 1742
period:- 18th century, early; 1740s

old map:- Badeslade 1742

A Map of Westmorland North from London, scale about 10 miles to 1 inch, and descriptive text, Cumberland similarly, by Thomas Badeslade, London, engraved and published by William Henry Toms, Union Court, Holborn, London, 1742.
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WESTMORLAND
county

placename:- Westmorland
county:- Westmorland
date:- 1742
period:- 18th century, early

descriptive text:- Defoe 1724-26

Travel book, Tour through England and Wales, by Daniel Defoe, published in parts, London, 1724-26.
Here we entred Westmoreland, a county eminent only for being the wildest, most barren and frightful of any that I have passed over in England, or even in Wales it self; the west side, which borders on Cumberland, is indeed bounded by a chain of almost unpassable mountains, which, in the language of the country, are called Fells, and these are called Fourness Fells, from the famous promontory bearing that name, and an abbey built also in antient times, and called Fourness.
But 'tis of no advantage to represent horror, as the character of a country, in the middle of all the frightful appearances to the right and left; yet here are some very pleasant, populous and manufacturing towns, and consequently populous.
...
When we entred at the south part of this county, I began indeed to think of Merionethshire, and the mountains of Snowden in North Wales, seeing nothing round me, in many places, but unpassable hills, whose tops, covered with snow, seemed to tell us all the pleasant part of England was at an end. ...

placename:- Westmoreland
date:- 1724=1726
period:- 18th century, early; 1720s

old map:- Bowen 1720 (plate 271)

Road book, Britannia Depicta Or Ogilby Improv'd, including road strip maps with sections in Westmorland, scale about 2 miles to 1 inch, derived from maps by Ogilby, 1675, and a county map of Westmorland, scale about 8 miles to 1 inch, with text by John Owen, published by Emanuel Bowen, London, 1720; published 1720-64.
thumbnail B271, button to large image
Plate 271 has the county map and descriptive text of:-
The County of WESTMORLAND is 110 M. in Circumference contains abt. 510000 Acres, 5 Wards, 8 Mt. & 2 Borough Towns 26 Pars. & about 6500 Houses. The Air is very sharp & cold & not subject to Foggs but healthy & agreable with strong Constitutions; insomuch that it hardens them against Diseases. The Soil is not very good but Mountainous & Moory, having several very high Hills. Ye Northern Parts are best. Its Comod~ & Manufacture is Cloth, & tho' this County is but barren on ye Hills yet there are good store of Sheep & ye Valleys are fruitfull in Corn & produce much Grass near ye Rivers. It pays in ye [Q|2] Aid L1522-11-10

placename:- Westmorland
date:- 1720
period:- 18th century, early; 1720s

descriptive text:- Fiennes 1698

Travel book, manuscript record of Journeys through England including parts of the Lake District, by Celia Fiennes, 1698.
... hereabout [Pooley Bridge?] we leave those desart and barren rocky hills, not that they are limitted to Westmorland only, for had I gone farther to the left hand on into Cumberland I should have found more such and they tell me farr worse for height and stony-nesse about White haven side and Cockermouth, so that tho' both the County's have very good land and fruitfull, so they equally partake of the bad, tho' indeed Westmorland takes its name from its abounding in moorish ground yet Cumberland has its share, and more of the hilly stony part; indeed I did observe those grounds were usually neighbours to each other, the rocks abounding in springs which distilling it self on lower ground if of a spungy soile made it marshy or lakes, and in many places very fruitfull in summer graine and grasse, but the northerly winds blow cold so long on them that they never attempt sowing their land with wheate or rhye.
date:- 1698
period:- 17th century, late
period:- 1690s

old map:- Morden 1695 (EW)

Maps, Westmorland, scale about 2.5 miles to 1 inch, and Cumberland, scale about 3 miles to 1 inch, by Robert Morden, 1695.
image MRD3Cm, button   goto source.
thumbnail MRD3Cm, button to large image
WESTMORELAND
county

placename:- Westmoreland
date:- 1695
period:- 17th century, late; 1690s

old map:- Seller 1694 (Wmd)

Map, Westmorland, now Cumbria, scale about 8 miles to 1 inch, by John Seller, 1694; editions to 1787.
thumbnail SEL7, button to large image
WESTMORLAND COUNTY
title in wreath cartouche

placename:- Westmorland County
county:- Westmorland
date:- 1694
period:- 17th century, late; 1690s

old map:- Sanson 1679

Map, Ancien Royaume de Northumberland aujourdhuy Provinces de Nort, ie the Ancient Kingdom of Northumberland or the Northern Provinces, scale about miles to 1 inch, by Nicholas Sanson, Paris, France, 1679.
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WESTMORLAND
county; included in the 'Royaume de Northumberland'

placename:- Westmorland
county:- Westmorland
date:- 1679
period:- 17th century, late; 1670s

old map:- Jenner 1643

Table of distances and map, Westmerland ie Westmorland, now Cumbria, scale about 16 miles to 1 inch, by Thomas Jenner, London, 1643.
thumbnail JEN3Sq, button to large image
Westmerland

placename:- Westmerland
date:- 1643
period:- 17th century, early; 1640s

table of distances:- Simons 1635

Table of distances and map of Westmorland, engraved by Jacob van Langeren, published by Mathew Simons, London, 1635-36.
thumbnail SIM3, button to large image
Westmerland
in title cartouche; adjacent counties given on thumbnail map
Lanca: & Cumb: W / Cumberland N / Yorkshire East / Lanca: So:

placename:- Westmerland
date:- 1635
period:- 17th century, early; 1630s

poem:- Drayton 1612/1622 text

Poem, Polyolbion, by Michael Drayton, published 1612, part 2 with Cumbria published by John Marriott, John Grismand, and Thomas Dewe, London, 1622.
Preceding this page is the map for Westmorland and Cumberland.
page 161; Westmorland and Cumberland:-
The thirtieth Song.
THE ARGUMENT.

placename:- Westmerland
date:- 1612; 1622
period:- 17th century, early; 1610s; 1620s

old map:- Speed 1611 (Cum/EW)

Maps, The Countie Westmorland and Kendale the Cheif Towne, scale about 3.5 miles to 1 inch, and Cumberland and the Ancient Citie Carlile, scale about 4 miles to 1 inch, by John Speed, London, 1611; published 1611-1770.
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WESTMORLAND
county

placename:- Westmorland
date:- 1611
period:- 17th century, early; 1610s

source:- Keer 1605

Map, Westmorlandia et Comberlandia, ie Westmorland and Cumberland now Cumbria, scale about 16 miles to 1 inch, probably by Pieter van den Keere, or Peter Keer, about 1605; published about 1605 to 1676.
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Westmorland
county

placename:- Westmorland
county:- Westmorland

descriptive text:- Keer 1605 (edn 1620)

Map, Westmorlandia et Comberlandia, ie Westmorland and Cumberland now Cumbria, scale about 16 miles to 1 inch, probably by Pieter van den Keere, or Peter Keer, about 1605; published about 1605 to 1676.
first page:-
WESTMORLAND.
CHAPTER XL.
WESTMORLAND, by some late Latine Writers is called Westmaria, and Westmorlandia, by some later Westmoria, and in our English Tongue Westmorland. It came to be thus named in our language by the situation, which in every part is so plenteously full of Moores and high hils, reaching one to another, that Westmorland (with us) is nothing else but a Westerne moorish Country. Having on the West and North-side Cumberland, on the South-part Lanca-shire, on the East-side Yorkeshire, and the Bishopricke of Durham.
(2) The length thereof extended from Burton in her South, to Kirkland in her North-part is 30. miles: the broadest part from East to West, is from the River Eden to Dunbal rase-stones, containing 24 miles, the whole circumference about 112. miles.
(3) The forme thereof is somewhat long and narrow: the Aire sharpe and piercing, purging it selfe from the trouble of grosse foggy mists and vapours, by reason of which the people of this Province are not acquainted with strange diseases or imperfections of body, but live long, and are healthfull, and attaine to the number of many yeares.
(4) The Soile for the most part of it, is but barren, and can hardly be brought to any fruitfulnesse by the industry and painfull labour of the husbandman, being so full of infertile places, which the Northern Englishmen call Moores: yet the more Southerly part is not reported to be so sterile, but more fruitfull in the vallies, ...
second page
(5) The ancient Inhabitants of this Country were the Brigantes, mentioned in the severall Counties of Yorke, Lancaster, and Cumberland.
(6) It is not commended either for plentie of Corne or Cattle, being neither stored with arable grounds to bring forth the one, nor pasturage to breed up the other: the principall profit that the people of this Province raise unto themselves, is by cloathing.
fourth page
...
(11) This Province is traded with foure Market-Townes, fortified with the strength of seven Castles, and hath 26. Parishes in it for the celebration of Divine Service.

placename:- Westmorland
other name:- Westmaria
other name:- Westmorlandia
other name:- Westmoria
person:- : Brigantes
date:- 1620
period:- 17th century, early; 1620s

source:- Lloyd 1573

Map, Angliae Regni, Kingdom of England, with Wales, scale about 24 miles to 1 inch, authored by Humphrey Lloyd, Denbigh, Clwyd, drawn and engraved by Abraham Ortelius, Netherlands, 1573.
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Westmerland

placename:- Westmerland
date:- 1573
period:- 16th century, late; 1570s

descriptive text:- Monmouth c1136

Extracts of Cumbrian interest from the History of the Kings of Britain by Geoffrey of Monmouth, about 1136; translated by Lewis Thorpe, published by Penguin Books, London, 1966.
Courtesy of Penguin Books
... Octavius, Duke of the Gewissei, led a revolt against a certain proconsul in whose hands, as a Roman dignitary, the government of the island had been left. ... Octavius seized the royal throne. This event was announced to Constantine and he sent Helen's uncle Trahern with three legions to restore the island to Roman sovereignty. ... King Octavius .... reassembled his men in companies, followed Trahern, and fought him in the province called Westmorland. This time Octavius was defeated, and fled. When Trahern realized that victory was his, he pursued Octavius, and gave him no respite until he had wrested from him his cities and his crown.
person:- : Octavius
person:- : Trahern
date:- 350=449
period:- 4th century; 5th century

descriptive text:- Monmouth c1136

Courtesy of Penguin Books
Extracts of Cumbrian interest from the History of the Kings of Britain by Geoffrey of Monmouth, about 1136; translated by Lewis Thorpe, published by Penguin Books, London, 1966.
Marius, the son of Arvirargus, succeeded ... in the kingship. He was a man of great prudence and wisdom. A little later on in his reign a certain King of the Picts called Sodric came from Scythia with a large fleet and landed in the northern part of Britain which is called Albany. He began to ravage Marius' lands. Marius thereupon collected his men together and marched to meet Sodric. He fought a number of battles against him and finally killed him and won a great victory. In token of his triumph Marius set up a stone in the district, which was afterwards called Westmorland after him. The inscription carved on it records his memory down to this very day. ...
person:- : Marius
person:- : Sodric
date:- 0=99
period:- 1st century

old map:- Saxton 1579

Westmorelandia

placename:- Westmorelandia
date:- 1576
period:- 16th century, late; 1570s

old map:- Cooper 1808

Map, Westmoreland ie Westmorland, scale about 9 miles to 1 inch, by H Cooper, 1808, published by G and W B Whittaker, 13 Ave Maria Lane, London, 1824.
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WESTMORELAND / in which is laid down every Parish & Place / containing upwards of 20 Houses. / Boroughs. ... 1 / Market Towns. ... 7 / Parishes ... 32 / Inhabited Houses. ... 7,897 / Inhabitants. ... 41,617 / Acres of Land.. ... 462,080 / Arable. ... 30,000 / Pasturage. ... 130,000
title cartouche, etc

placename:- Westmoreland
county:- Westmorland
date:- 1808
period:- 19th century, early; 1800s

old map:-
thumbnail BXX11, button to large image
Map, hand coloured engraving, wood jigsaw puzzle, England, scale about 26 miles to 1 inch, by Gall and Inglis, Bernard Terrace, Edinburgh, and 25 Paternoster Square, London, cut by E J Peacock, King's Cross, London, 1850s?
printed on box lid:-
A / DISSECTED / MAP / OF / ENGLAND / Manufactured by E. J. PEACOCK, 10 Upper [W house] Street, King's Cross.
printed on jigsaw
WESTMORLAND

placename:- Westmorland
date:- 1850=1859
period:- 19th century, late

Old Cumbria Gazetteer - JandMN: 2013

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