button to main menu  Camden's Britannia, edn 1789

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Page 175:-
  roman inscription
[ap]pears plainly from the various evidences of antiquity frequently dug up, and its great renown at that time. Even after the ravages of the Picts and Scots it preserved some of its antient splendour and was accounted a city. For A.D. 619 Egfrid king of Northumberland, gave it to S. Cuthbert in the following words [l]: "I have given also the city called Luguballia with 15 miles around it." At which time it was also walled in. "The townspeople," says Bede [m], "brought Cuthbert to see the walls of the city, and a fountain in it built in an extraordinary manner by the Romans." That saint, according to the register of Durham, "settled there a congregation of nuns, and appointed an abbess, and founded schools there." It was afterwards greatly ruined by the Danes, and lay buried in its ashes near 200 years, till it began to recover itself under the favour of king William Rufus, who erected new buildings in it, built the castle, and settled a colony first of Flemings (whom he afterwards prudently removed into Wales) and then of the Southern English. "Then," as Malmesbury [n] writes, "was discovered a Roman Salon or Triclinium of stone, arched over, unhurt by time or fire, having in front this inscription: MARII VICTORIAE." Some have supposed this Marius to be Arviragus the Britan: others contend for his being that Marius who was elected emperor in opposition to Gallienus, and is reported by historians to have been so strong, that instead of veins in his fingers he had sinews [o]. I am told, however, that some copies instead of MARII VICTORIAE have MARTI VICTORI, which perhaps may be more approved by other critics and come nearer the truth. Luguballia being now grown populous, had, as we learn from our writers, its own earl or more properly lord, Radulphus Meschines or de Micenis, from whom descended the earls of Chester, and being at the same time advanced by Henry I. to an episcopal see had for its first bishop Athulpus. This the monks of Durham say was prejudicial to their church. "When Ranulphus, say they, bishop of Durham, was banished, and the church had no defender, certain bishops united Carleil and Tividale to their dioceses." How the Scots made themselves masters of this city in the reign of Stephen, and Henry II. recovered it, how Henry III. committed the castle of Carlisle, and the earldom to Robert de Vipont, how A.D. 1292, it was destroyed by fire, together with the cathedral and suburbs, how Robert Brus of Scotland A.D. 1315, beseiged it in vain, and many other particulars are related at large in our histories [p]. It may not, however, be amiss to add two inscriptions which I saw here; the first in the house of Thomas Aglionby near the citadel, but of the more barbarous age:
  #x002A; Tumulum.
  #x002A; Carrisima

Near which is also the figure of a horseman in armour with a spear. The other in a larger and fairer character is in the garden of Thomas Middleton:

VIC. P. F.
G. P. R. F.
which I read Legio Sexta, Victrix, Pia, Felix. The rest I leave to others to explain.
  Andrew Harcla, earl of Carlisle. Tho. Avensbury.
The only earl of Carlisle was Andrew de Harcla, whom king Edward II. to borrow the words of the original record, "for his good and faithful service against Thomas earl of Lancaster and his adherents in subduing the king's enemies and subjects, and bringing them prisonors to the king, invested with the rank and title of earl of Carlisle by girding on his sword." He afterwards traiterously and basely broke his engagements to his country and sovereign, and, being taken, suffered the ignominy due to his treason, "being degraded by having his spurs chopt off with a hatchet, his belt ungirt, his boots and gloves pulled off, and being then drawn, hanged, beheaded and quartered."
I shall now take my leave of Luguballia (which stands in 20° 31′ of longitude and 54° 55′ north latitude), with these lines of J. Johnston in praise of it.

Romanis quondam statio tutissima signis,
Ultimaque Ausonidum meta labosque ducum,
E specula late vicinos prospicit agros,
Hinc ciet & pugnas, arcet & inde metus.
Gens acri ingenio, studiis asperrima belli,
Doctaque bellaci figere tela manu.
Scotorum reges quondam tenuere beati;
Nunc iterum priscis additur imperiis.
Quid, Romane putas extrema hic limina mundi?
Mundum retro alium surgere nonne vides?
Sit vidisse satis: docuit nam Scotica virtus
Immensis animis hic posuisse modum.

Of yore the Roman army's safe retreat,
Bound of their conquests and their chieftain's toils,
She views the extensive country from her height,
Alarms, defends, and seizes on the spoils.
Her active sons enur'd to martial feat,
And skill'd to hurl the javelin at the foe,
She once the Scottish happy monarchs' seat,
Now to her former sov'reigns back must go.
In vain the Roman boasts that erst he found
Earth's limit here. See other worlds arise
To mock his distant view. Ambition's bound
By Scottish valour fixt unalter'd lies.
  Rowcliffe. Netherby.
  Esk, River
  Kershope Burn

Crossing the Eden now one sees Rowcliff near the bank, a little castle, built by the lords Dacres not long since for the defence of their property. Above this the two rivers Esk and Leven fall with united streams with one common mouth as it were into Eden frith. The Esk comes from Scotland, but for some miles owns itself a subject of England, and receives the river Kirsop, where the English and Scots lately separated not so much by the river as their mutual fears gave ample proof of the great qualities of both nations. On this river where the little village of Netherby presents to view a few poor cottages are such extraordinary and considerable re-
[l] See in Sim. Dunelm. p.5. inter x Script. the donation at large.
[m] Vit. Cuthb. c.27.
[n] De gest. pont III. Ptol.
[o] Treb. Pollio in vit. ejus
[p] John de Eversden. He was a monk of St. Edmund's Bury, and sent as proxy for the abbot to the parliament at Carlisle 1307, and died 1336. His Chronicle remains in MS. among the Norfolk MSS. in the Heralds college. Tanner, Bib. Brit. 271.
gazetteer links
button -- Carlisle Cathedral
button -- "Carlisle" -- Carlisle
button -- "Batable Ground" -- Debatable Land
button -- "Esk, River" -- Esk, River
button -- "Rowcliff Castle" -- Rockcliffe Castle
button -- "Aesica" -- (roman fort, Netherby)
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