button to main menu  Simpson's Agreeable Historian, 1746

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Page 177:-
Wall, repair'd the Church, and annexed a College of Canons, or Prebends, to it.

But in the 8th and 9th Centuries, the whole County was again ruined by the repeated Incursions of the Danes and Norwegians, this City being laid quite desolate, and all the Citizens barbarously destroy'd, some few Ecclesiasticks and chief Inhabitants excepted, and in this miserable State it continu'd 200 Years, 'till the Time of the Norman Conquests, which better'd not its Condition, for William, the Conqueror, took no farther Notice of it, than by Writ to subject it, and the rest of the County, to the See of Durham: but William Rufus, his Son, returning Home from the Scotch Wars, after he had settled a Peace with that Nation, made a Visit to Carlisle, and being pleas'd with the Situation, he repair'd it, both as to the Fortifications and Houses, and placed here a Colony first of Flemings, and afterwards of English Husbandmen from the more Southern Provinces, for the Improvement of the Lands, which had then lain so long uncultivated.
Carlisle being thus in some Measure restor'd, King Henry I. considering how good a Barrier it might be made against the Scots, caused it to be well fortify'd, plac'd a Garrison in it, dignify'd it with an Episcopal See, and bestow'd upon it many other Privileges and Emoluments, which might make it strong and populous, which his Successors, even down so low as Queen Elizabeth, very much augmented. It was indeed often besieg'd by the Scots, and twice taken, viz. in King Stephen's and King John's Reigns; but was recover'd gain by their successors King Henry II. and III. and tho' it was burnt by Misfortune in the reign of Richard II. and near 1500 Houses destroy'd, with the Cathedral and Suburbs, yet by the Munificence of the succeeding Kings, it was again restor'd, and much improved in Strength and Beauty.
It is, at present, a wealthy and populous Place, the Houses are well built, the City walled in, having three Gates, viz. the Caldo, or Irish Gate, on the S. the Bother, or English Gate, on the W. and the Richard, or Scotch Gate, towards the N. It trades chiefly in Fustian, has a considerable Market on Saturdays, and three Fairs
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