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Birker Force, Eskdale
Birker Force
site name:-   Low Birker Pool
site name:-   Force Gill (2)
civil parish:-   Eskdale (formerly Cumberland)
county:-   Cumbria
locality type:-   waterfall
coordinates:-   SD18759993 (?) 
1Km square:-   SD1899
10Km square:-   SD19

CDF09.jpg (taken 4.6.2015)  

evidence:-   old map:- OS County Series (Cmd 79 15) 
placename:-  Birker Force
source data:-   Maps, County Series maps of Great Britain, scales 6 and 25 inches to 1 mile, published by the Ordnance Survey, Southampton, Hampshire, from about 1863 to 1948.

evidence:-   old map:- Otley 1818
source data:-   Map, uncoloured engraving, The District of the Lakes, Cumberland, Westmorland, and Lancashire, scale about 4 miles to 1 inch, by Jonathan Otley, 1818, engraved by J and G Menzies, Edinburgh, Scotland, published by Jonathan Otley, Keswick, Cumberland, et al, 1833.
Marked by three chevrons across the stream. 
item:-  JandMN : 48.1
Image © see bottom of page

evidence:-   descriptive text:- Otley 1823 (5th edn 1834) 
source data:-   Guide book, A Concise Description of the English Lakes, the mountains in their vicinity, and the roads by which they may be visited, with remarks on the mineralogy and geology of the district, by Jonathan Otley, published by the author, Keswick, Cumberland now Cumbria, by J Richardson, London, and by Arthur Foster, Kirkby Lonsdale, Cumbria, 1823; published 1823-49, latterly as the Descriptive Guide to the English Lakes.
image OT01P045, button  goto source
Page 45:-  "BIRKER FORCE, on the south side of Eskdale, is a stream of water emitted between lofty rocks, and pouring from a great elevation down the hill side in a stripe of foam."

evidence:-   descriptive text:- Ford 1839 (3rd edn 1843) 
placename:-  Birker Force
item:-  height, Birker Force
source data:-   Guide book, A Description of Scenery in the Lake District, by Rev William Ford, published by Charles Thurnam, Carlisle, by W Edwards, 12 Ave Maria Lane, Charles Tilt, Fleet Street, William Smith, 113 Fleet Street, London, by Currie and Bowman, Newcastle, by Bancks and Co, Manchester, by Oliver and Boyd, Edinburgh, and by Sinclair, Dumfries, 1839.
image FD01P013, button  goto source
Page 13:-  "..."
"... Birker Force, perhaps the finest cascade in Cumberland; the rocky cheeks which contain the water are of the grandest dimensions."
image FD01P179, button  goto source
Page 179:-  "WATERFALLS."
No. Name and Situation of Fall. Height.
10 Birker Force, Eskdale 65 feet

evidence:-   old map:- Garnett 1850s-60s H
placename:-  Birker Force
source data:-   Map of the English Lakes, in Cumberland, Westmorland and Lancashire, scale about 3.5 miles to 1 inch, published by John Garnett, Windermere, Westmorland, 1850s-60s.
"Birker Force"
two lines across a stream, waterfall 
item:-  JandMN : 82.1
Image © see bottom of page

evidence:-   old text:- Martineau 1855
source data:-   Guide book, A Complete Guide to the English Lakes, by Harriet Martineau, published by John Garnett, Windermere, Westmorland, and by Whittaker and Co, London, 1855; published 1855-76.
image MNU1P180, button  goto source
Page 180:-  "WATERFALLS."
"No. : Names and Situations of Falls. : Counties : Feet in Height."
"9 : Birker Force, Eskdale : Cumberland : 65"

evidence:-   old photograph:- Bell 1880s-1940s
source data:-   Photograph, black and white, Birker Force, Eskdale, Cumberland, by Herbert Bell, Ambleside, Westmorland, 1890s.
image  click to enlarge
internegative at lower right:-  "H. Bell"
item:-  Armitt Library : ALPS186
Image © see bottom of page

evidence:-   old print:- Rose 1832-35
source data:-   Print, engraving, Birker Force, Cumberland, by Thomas Allom, engraved by H Bond, 1833.
image  click to enlarge
"Birker Force, Cumberland"
item:-  JandMN : 96.15
Image © see bottom of page

CDF10.jpg (taken 4.6.2015)  

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