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Piel Castle, Piel Island
Piel Castle
site name:-   Piel Island
civil parish:-   Barrow-in-Furness (formerly Lancashire)
county:-   Cumbria
locality type:-   castle
coordinates:-   SD23306357
1Km square:-   SD2363
10Km square:-   SD26


photograph
BPP66.jpg (taken 16.8.2008)  
photograph
BPP67.jpg (taken 16.8.2008)  

evidence:-   old map:- OS County Series (Lan 28 5) 
placename:-  Piel Castle
placename:-  Pile of Fouldrey
source data:-   Maps, County Series maps of Great Britain, scales 6 and 25 inches to 1 mile, published by the Ordnance Survey, Southampton, Hampshire, from about 1863 to 1948.
"Peel Castle or Pile of Fouldrey"

evidence:-   old map:- Mercator 1595 (edn?) 
placename:-  Pile of Fowdray, The
source data:-   Map, hand coloured engraving, Westmorlandia, Lancastria, Cestria etc, ie Westmorland, Lancashire, Cheshire etc, scale about 10.5 miles to 1 inch, by Gerard Mercator, Duisberg, Germany, 1595, edition 1613-16.
image
MER5LanA.jpg
"The pile of fowdray"
circle, building and tower 
item:-  Armitt Library : 2008.14.3
Image © see bottom of page

evidence:-   probably old map:- Morden 1695 (EW) 
placename:-  Pile of Foudrey
source data:-   Map, hand coloured engraving, England, including Wales, scale about 27 miles to 1 inch, by Robert Morden, published by Abel Swale Awnsham and John Churchil, London, about 1695.
image  click to enlarge
MRD3Cm.jpg
"Pile of Foudrey"
no symbol 
item:-  JandMN : 339
Image © see bottom of page

evidence:-   old painting:- Penn 1730s
placename:-  Pile of Fouldry
source data:-   Painting, pen and ink and watercolour, A Prospect of the Ruins of the Castle of Pile of Fouldry and the Adjacent Islands taken from Ramside, ie Piel Castle etc, Barrow-in-Furness, Lancashire, by Stephen Penn, 1730s.
image  click to enlarge
PEN5Msc2.jpg
"Pile of Fouldry"
item:-  Huntington Art Gallery : 1
Image © see bottom of page

evidence:-   old text:- Mackenzie 1776
source data:-   Charts, and sailing directions, Nautical Descriptions of the West Coast of Great Britain, Bristol Channel to Cape Wrath, by Murdoch Mackenzie, published London, 1776.
image MK10P18, button  goto source
Page 18:-  "... ..."
"To sail into Piel-of-Foudray from the S. / To sail into Piel-of-Foudray from the S.; first make the old castle on that Island (which is remarkable, and easily seen, at three leagues distance), keep the castle N. by E. or N. by E. ┬ŻE. ..."

evidence:-   presumably descriptive text:- West 1778 (11th edn 1821) 
placename:-  Peel Castle
source data:-   Guide book, A Guide to the Lakes, by Thomas West, published by William Pennington, Kendal, Cumbria once Westmorland, and in London, 1778 to 1821.
image WS21P217, button  goto source
Addendum; Mr Gray's Journal, 1769 
Page 217:-  "[looking from Lancaster] [Peel-]castle on the isle of Foudry, which lies off its southern extremity. ..."

evidence:-   old map:- West 1784 map
placename:-  Peel Castle
source data:-   Map, hand coloured engraving, A Map of the Lakes in Cumberland, Westmorland and Lancashire, scale about 3.5 miles to 1 inch, engraved by Paas, 53 Holborn, London, about 1784.
image
Ws02SD26.jpg
item:-  Armitt Library : A1221.1
Image © see bottom of page

evidence:-   old text:- Camden 1789
placename:-  Pile of Fouldrey
source data:-   Book, Britannia, or A Chorographical Description of the Flourishing Kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland, by William Camden, 1586, translated from the 1607 Latin edition by Richard Gough, published London, 1789.
image CAM2P132, button  goto source
Page 132:-  "..."
"Between this lake and the river Dudden runs out the point commonly called Fornesse, to which is opposed for a long way as a kind of breast-work Walney island, divided from it by a narrow channel, the entrance to which is guarded by the Pile of Fouldrey as it is called, built by one of the abbots of Fornesse on a rock in the midst of the sea 1 Edward III."

evidence:-   old text:- Capper 1808
placename:-  Peel of Foundrey
source data:-   Gazetteer, A Topographical Dictionary of the United Kingdom, compiled by Benjamin Pitts Capper, published by Richard Phillips, Bridge Street, Blackfriars, London, 1808; published 1808-29.
image CAP119, button  goto source
"[Dalton ...] ... On the south-west promontory of the parish stands the remains of the ancient castle of the Peel of Foundrey, which appears to have been a strong fortification, surrounded by two ditches. ..."

evidence:-   old map:- Otley 1818
placename:-  Peel Castle
source data:-   Map, uncoloured engraving, The District of the Lakes, Cumberland, Westmorland, and Lancashire, scale about 4 miles to 1 inch, by Jonathan Otley, 1818, engraved by J and G Menzies, Edinburgh, Scotland, published by Jonathan Otley, Keswick, Cumberland, et al, 1833.
image
OT02SD26.jpg
item:-  JandMN : 48.1
Image © see bottom of page

evidence:-   old map:- Hydrographic Office 1850s onwards
placename:-  Piel Castle
source data:-   Chart, uncoloured engraving, England West Coast sheet XI, Fleetwood to the Firth of Solway, scale about 2.5 miles to 1 inch, by H Denham and G Williams, 1846, engraved by J and C Walker, published by the Hydrographic Office, 1850 corrected to 1863
coast view on Admiralty chart 
image  click to enlarge
HY01P2.jpg
"Piel Castle"
item:-  Carlisle Library : Map 93
Image © Carlisle Library

evidence:-   old print:- Payn 1867
placename:-  Piel Castle
source data:-   Print, uncoloured engraving, Piel Castle, Piel Island, Barrow-in-Furness, Lancashire, by T L Aspland, engraved by Greenaway, published by J Garnett, Windermere, Westmorland, 1867.
image  click to enlarge
PN0342.jpg
On p.79 of The Lakes in Sunshine, text by James Payn. 
printed at lower right:-  "GREENAWAY Sc"
item:-  Fell and Rock Climbing Club : 184.42
Image © see bottom of page

evidence:-   old print:- Barber 1873
source data:-   Print, ?colour lithograph, Piel Castle, published by The Graphotyping Co, 7 Garrick Street and Simpkin, Marshall and Co, Stationers' Hall Court, London, and by J Atkinson, King Street, Ulverston, Cumberland, about 1873.
image  click to enlarge
BB1E06.jpg
Viewed from the sea.  "PIEL CASTLE"
item:-  JandMN : 69.7
Image © see bottom of page

evidence:-   text:- Curwen 1913
placename:-  Fotheray
item:-  licence to crenellate
source data:-   Book, The Castles and Fortified Towers of Cumberland, Westmorland, and Lancashire North of the Sands, by John F Curwen, published for the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society by Titus Wilson, Kendal, Westmorland, 1913.
Licence to crenellate granted by Edward III; 26 September 1327:-  "Abbot and Convent of Fourneys to crenellate their dwelling house of Fotheray in Fourneys, Lancaster"

evidence:-   site plan:- Curwen 1913
placename:-  Piel Castle
source data:-   Print, lithograph, Piel Castle, Plan of Inner Ward, Pile Island, Barrow-in-Furness, Lancashire, scale about 1 to 260, published for the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society by Titus Wilson, Kendal, Westmorland, 1913.
image  click to enlarge
CW0143.jpg
Tipped in opposite p.226 of The Castles and Fortified Towers of Cumberland, Westmorland, and Lancashire North of the Sands, by John F Curwen. 
printed at off centre:-  "PIEL CASTLE / PLAN OF / INNER WARD"
printed at lower right:-  "John F. Curwen, F.S.A. / 31.viij.1909."
item:-  Armitt Library : A782.43
Image © see bottom of page

evidence:-   old text:- Admiralty 1933
source data:-   image AY01p375, button  goto source
Page 375:-  "..."
"The ruined castle on Piel island (Lat. 54~ 04' N., Long. 3~ 10' W.), about 8 cables northward of Walney Island lighthouse, Yarlside church tower, about 2 miles farther northward, and the Town hall at Barrow-in Furness are also conspicuous."

evidence:-   text:- Jackson 1990
placename:-  Pele of Fotheray
placename:-  Pile of Fotheray
placename:-  Pele of Fouldrey
placename:-  Pile of Fouldrey
source data:-  

evidence:-   database:- Listed Buildings 2010
placename:-  Piel Castle
source data:-  
courtesy of English Heritage
"PIEL CASTLE / / / BARROW IN FURNESS / BARROW IN FURNESS / CUMBRIA / I / 388354 / SD2328363595"
source data:-  
courtesy of English Heritage
"Ruins of castle. Licensed 1327, dismantled 1403, repaired c1429 (previous list description). Cobble rubble with red sandstone dressings. Incomplete 3-storey keep now of 2 long cells with north gatehouse; east side collapsed. Inner defence on 2 sides has gatehouse to west and corner towers. Less complete outer bailey with section of wall and freestanding towers linked by mound and ditch. Keep: chamfered plinth; offset diagonal buttresses and mid-point buttresses; pointed, 2-light windows originally with quatrefoils. Vaulted gatehouse has moulded, pointed arch with clinging figure carved on keystone; hexagonal clasping buttresses. Internal spiral stair to left is lit by slits each side of the buttress; wall bows out at another spiral stair on right return. Projection at south-east corner has different floor levels. Vaulted look-outs at corners of parapet. Inner defence: 2-storey west gatehouse with pointed arches and 2 flights of steps against wall to north; north-west tower is 5-sided. Furness Abbey (qv) engaged in much trade through Piel Harbour and fortified this site soon after the Scottish invasions of 1316 and 1322. The castle provided a secure warehouse for contraband goods including Flemish wool. Henry IV briefly took possession but not before the abbots had the roof stripped to ensure the King did not install revenue men. In 1487 Lambert Simnel and an army of mercenaries landed at Piel intending to dethrone Henry VII; their march ended in defeat at the Battle of Stoke. By 1530 the castle had long been in ruins. Scheduled Ancient Monument now in the care of English Heritage."
"(Barnes F: Barrow and District: Barrow: 1968-: 32-33, 38)."

evidence:-   old print:- Robertson 1911
placename:-  Peele Castle
source data:-   Print, lithograph? Peele Castle, near Rampside, Lancashire, from a watercolour by Arthur Tucker, published by Chatto and Windus, London, 1911.
image  click to enlarge
RSN125.jpg
Tipped in opposite p.106 of Wordsworthshire by Eric Robertson. 
printed at bottom:-  "PEELE CASTLE, NEAR RAMPSIDE, LANCASHIRE"
signed at painting lower left:-  "Arthur Tucker"
item:-  JandMN : 197.26
Image © see bottom of page

evidence:-   site plan:- 
placename:-  Piel Castle
source data:-   Plan, uncoloured lithograph, Piel Castle, Plan of Keep, 1876, scale 24 feet to 1 inch, Piel Island, Barrow-in-Furness, Lancashire, published by the Cumberland and Westmorland Archaeological and Antiquarian Society, 1878.
image  click to enlarge
PR1556.jpg
With an article about the castle by William Harrison. 
printed at upper right:-  "PIEL CASTLE / PLAN OF KEEP"
item:-  private collection : 236
Image © see bottom of page

evidence:-   old print:- 
placename:-  Piel Castle
source data:-   Print, uncoloured lithograph, Piel Castle, The Keep, 1876, Piel Island, Barrow-in-Furness, Lancashire, published by the Cumberland and Westmorland Archaeological and Antiquarian Society, 1878.
image  click to enlarge
PR1557.jpg
With an article about the castle by William Harrison. 
printed at lower left:-  "PIEL CASTLE / 'THE KEEP' MAY 1876."
item:-  private collection : 235
Image © see bottom of page

evidence:-   old print:- Waugh 1860
placename:-  Peel Castle
source data:-   Print, engraving, Peel Castle, Barrow-in-Furness, Lancashire, published by Alexander Ireland and Co, 22 Market Street, Manchester, 1860.
image  click to enlarge
WU0115.jpg
On p.42 of Over Sands to the Lakes, by Edwin Waugh. 
printed at bottom:-  "PEEL CASTLE."
item:-  Armitt Library : A1082.15
Image © see bottom of page

evidence:-   old print:- Gibson 1851
placename:-  Pile of Fouldrey
source data:-   Print, engraving, The Castle or Pile of Fouldrey, Piel Island, Barrow-in-Furness, Lancashire, published by J Jackson, Market Place, Ulverston, Lancashire, and by Whittaker and Co, London, 1851.
image  click to enlarge
GB05E6.jpg
On p.90 of a Hand Book to The Lakes, by James Gibson. 
item:-  Armitt Library : A1131.8
Image © see bottom of page

evidence:-   old print:- Jopling 1843
placename:-  Pile Castle
source data:-   Print, Pile Castle, Piel Island Barrow-in-Furness, Lancashire, by Charles M Jopling, published by Whittaker and Co, Ave Maria Lane, London and by Stephen Soulby, Ulverston, Cumberland, 1843.
image  click to enlarge
JP1E25.jpg
Tipped in opposite p.163 of a Sketch of Furness and Cartmel, by Charles M Jopling. 
item:-  Armitt Library : A1636.25
Image © see bottom of page

evidence:-   old print:- 
placename:-  Pile of Fouldrey Castle
item:-  fishing net
source data:-   Print, uncoloured engraving, Pile of Fouldrey Castle, Barrow-in-Furness, Lancashire, drawn by G Pickering, engraved by Fenner and Co, published by Fisher, Son and Co, London, 1830s?
image  click to enlarge
PR0651.jpg
From Walney Island; fishermen on the shore in the foreground with hand nets. 
printed at bottom left, right, centre:-  "Drawn by G. Pickering. / Engraved by Fenner & Co. / PILE OF FOULDREY CASTLE. / FISHER, SON &Co. LONDON."
item:-  Dove Cottage : 2008.107.595
Image © see bottom of page

evidence:-   old print:- West 1774 (2nd edn 1805) 
placename:-  Castle of Fouldrey
placename:-  Pile of Fouldrey
item:-  
source data:-   Print, uncoloured mezzotint, North View of the Ruins of the Castle or Pile of Fouldrey, Piel Castle, Piel Island, Barrow-in-Furness, Lancashire, drawn by William Close, published 1805.
image  click to enlarge
WS2707.jpg
Tipped in opposite p.369 in The Antiquities of Furness, by Thomas West, 2nd edn edited by William Close. 
printed at bottom:-  "North View of the Ruins of the Castle or Pile of Fouldrey."
printed at bottom of page, left, right:-  "Drawn by W. Close."
item:-  private collection : 202.8
Image © see bottom of page

evidence:-   site plan:- West 1774 (2nd edn 1805) 
placename:-  Castle of Fouldrey
placename:-  Pile of Fouldrey
item:-  
source data:-   Print, hand coloured engraving, Ground Plan of the Remains of the Castle or Pile of Fouldrey, Piel Castle, Piel Island, Barrow-in-Furness, Lancashire, scale about 1 to 1800, drawn by William Close? published 1805.
image  click to enlarge
WS2708.jpg
On p.373 in The Antiquities of Furness, by Thomas West, 2nd edn edited by William Close. 
printed at top:-  "GROUND PLAN OF THE REMAINS OF THE CASTLE OR / PILE OF FOULDREY."
printed at with scale line:-  "SCALE OF YARDS."
item:-  private collection : 202.9
Image © see bottom of page

evidence:-   old print:- 
placename:-  Peele Castle
source data:-   Print, uncoloured engraving, Peele Castle, Piel Island, Barrow-in-Furness, Lancashire, drawn by B Ralph, engraved by I Ryland, published about 1774?
image  click to enlarge
PR0566.jpg
printed at bottom left, right, centre:-  "B. Ralph del. / I Ryland sculp. / PEELE CASTLE / p.376."
item:-  Dove Cottage : 2008.107.514
Image © see bottom of page


photograph
BPP68.jpg (taken 16.8.2008)  
photograph
BPP69.jpg  Carving over the main door of the keep.
(taken 16.8.2008)  
photograph
BPP70.jpg (taken 16.8.2008)  
photograph
BPP71.jpg (taken 16.8.2008)  
photograph
BPP72.jpg  Wind erosion in the sandstone.
(taken 16.8.2008)  
photograph
BPP73.jpg (taken 16.8.2008)  
photograph
BPP74.jpg (taken 16.8.2008)  
photograph
BPP75.jpg (taken 16.8.2008)  
photograph
BPP76.jpg (taken 16.8.2008)  
photograph
BPP77.jpg (taken 16.8.2008)  
photograph
BOG60.jpg  From Walney Island.
(taken 10.10.2007)  
photograph
BLW28.jpg  From Humphrey Head.
(taken 18.4.2006)  

notes:-  
Castle of the Abbots of Furness, 13th-14th century.
An apparition of a monk is said to walk here.

notes:-  
castle

Perriam, D R &Robinson, J: 1998: Medieval Fortified Buildings of Cumbria: CWAAS:: ISBN 1 873124 23 6; plan and illustration

Paley and Austin series
person:-   architect
 : Paley, Edward G
person:-   architect
 : Austin, Hubert J
date:-   1876
 to 1878
Restoration work on a turret and stair.

person:-    : English Heritage

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