button to main menu  Camden's Britannia, edn 1789

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Page 143:-
  Gleaston c.
  Gleaston Castle
Gleaston castle in this parish, now belonging to lord George Cavendish, has been very large, having four high towers besides many other buildings with thick mud walls. It stands in a fertile vale among rich meadows sheltered from the sea by fruitful hills [g]. In the ruins of this castle was found a brass celt 9 inches long and 5 at its broad end, finely polished and covered with a beautiful patina [h]. Another shaped like it but having a ring and socket was found in Lancaster 1737 [i].
  Bardsay hall
Bardsay hall, the seat of a family of its name now extinct, and afterwards of lord Molyneux, is an antient building on rock with costly gardens, now belonging to Wilson Braddyll, esq. [k]
  Kirkby Ireleth
  Kirkby Ireleth
Kirkby near Ireleth was the seat of the antient family of Kirkby from the Conquest [l], but now belongs to lord John Cavendish. The manor-house, now mostly down, was called Kirkby cross house, from a cross before the door, whose head is said to have been broken off by order of archbishop Sandys who was born at Hawkshead [7]. Ireleth is the place whence the iron ore is now shipped, and its name may be derived from ire iron, and lath a barn, in the country dialect
At Urswick was found 1774, a Roman brass vessel on three feet.
  Broughton in Furness
Broughton, the seat of a family of that name till forfeited t. Henry VII. by sir Thomas Broughton for joining Lambert Simnel. He is said to have fallen in the battle of Stoke 1487, but others say he escaped to Witherslack in Westmorland, where he lived long undiscovered among his tenants, and was buried there in the chapel since rebuilt at a considerable distance from the old site by dean Borwick 1664 [m]. It belongs now to the Sawreys and has a considerable market for woollen yarn, and a neat square built by the Sawreys. Near this place an handsome bridge was built at the expence of the hundred over the river Duddon, which divides the counties of Lancaster and Cumberland.
Conishead, a priory of black canons, founded by Gabriel Pennington t. Henry II. valued at £.97. [n] It was first an hospital founded by William de Lancaster baron of Kendal, the seat of the Sandys, the Doddings, and Braddylls [o].
  Fox, George

Swartmoor was so called from Martin Swartz, who encamped here with his Germans, who came over with Simnel 1487, at the pile of Foudrey; and here George Fox and his followers first shewed themselves in this county 1652 [p].
  Coniston Water

To the north is Coningston manor between Coningston fells, very high mountains, wherein are mines of copper, lead, and slate [q], and Coningston or Thurston water, a lake five miles long and near one broad, whose char are said to be the finest in England; they are fished later than on Windermere, and continue longer in the spring [r]. It has the additional name of Fleming to distinguish it from Monk Coningston on the opposite side of the lake which belonged to Furness abbey. In the reign of Henry III. it came by marriage from the Urswickes to Richard le Fleming of Caernarvon castle, and has been ever since enjoyed by his heirs male, sir Michael le Fleming of Rydal hall, Westmorland, being the present possessor; which last manor came to them by marriage of sir Thomas le Fleming with Isabel one of the daughters and coheirs of sir John de Lancaster of Rydal and Holgil castle in the same county, knt. The chapel was made parochial among divers others in this county by archbishop Sandys. [s]
  Sandys, Archbishop

Hawkshead, the 4th market town in Furness, is built in an odd fashion, the birth-place of archbishop Sandys, who here founded a grammar-school and made the church parochial; in which his father and mother have a tomb [t]. The trade of this place and Coniston is woollen yarn [u]. Inscription over the school-house:

Memoriae reverendi D.D. Edwini Sandys, Ebor. olim archiepiscopi scholae hujus fundatoris Daniel Rawlinson civis Londini Graisdalea com' Lanc' oriundus posuit, A.D 1675.
Mr. Rawlinson was a considerable benefactor.
Inscription on the poor-house at Gallow Barrow near Hawkshead:

Rev. Thomas Sandys, curate of St. Martin in the Fields and lecturer at St. James's, London, A.D. 1717, left by his will the interest of 800l. to endow this poor house, maintain and educate as many boys born in Hawkeshead as the interest will admit of, and they are to be taught at the freeschool.- 1749.
Subsequent benefactions, George Satterthwaite late of Green End, deceased, 20l.
William Dennison, late of Rodger Ground, deceased, 400l.
N.B. Some of it lost.
From the antient family of Rawlinson of Graisdale descended sir Thomas Rawlinson, lord mayor of London, 1706, who died 1708, leaving eight of 15 children surviving. The eldest son Thomas was a man of learning and a patron of scholars and antiquaries, a great collector of books and MSS. which were sold after his death, 1725. 1733. The 4th son Richard was an eminent antiquary and great benefactor to the University of Oxford, where he had been educated at St. John's college, and was created LL.D. by diploma 1719 F.R. and A.S. and editor of various county histories, and other topographical pieces, compiler of the 'English Topographer, 1720.' 8vo. which suggested the plan of the 'British Topography,' in 2 vols. 4to. He died 1755, age 65, and was buried in a vault under St. Giles' church at Oxford, and his heart in his college chapel. His library of books was sold 1756 in 50 days, and his 20,000 pamphlets in 1757 in 10 days. Christopher Rawlinson, only son of Curwen Rawlinson, of Cark hall, in Cartmell, collaterally related to all the foregoing, was born 1677, educated at Queen's college, Oxford, and eminently distinguished for his application to the Saxon and Northern literature, He published a beautiful edition of Alfred's translation of Boetius de Consolatione 1698, and left a large collection of MSS. among which are many relating to Westmorland and Cumberland. He died 1732, age 55, and was buried in a vault in the north transept of St. Alban's abbey church, where is a beautiful monument to his memory.
[g] G. West, xxv. 218.
[h] Archaeol. V. 106.
[i] Ib. 113.
[k] West, xxvii.
[l] Ib. 235.
[7] G.
[m] G. West, 210.
[n] Tan. 231.
[o] West, 185.
[p] G. Pennant, 28.
[q] West, xxxiv.
[r] West's Guide to the Lakes, 57.
[s] G. West, 219-234.
[t] West, xxxv. Pennant, 31.
[u] West, xxxviii.
gazetteer links
button -- "Bardsay Hall" -- Bardsea Hall
button -- "Broughton" -- Broughton in Furness
button -- Broughton Tower
button -- "Cark Hall" -- Cark Hall
button -- "Conishead Priory" -- Conishead Priory
button -- "Coningston Water" -- Coniston Water
button -- "Coningston" -- Coniston
button -- Duddon Bridge
button -- "Gleaston Castle" -- Gleaston Castle
button -- "Graisdale" -- Graythwaite Old Hall
button -- "Urswick" -- Great Urswick
button -- "Hawkshead" -- Hawkshead
button -- "Kirkby Cross House" -- Kirkby Hall
button -- "Monk Coningston" -- Monk Coniston
button -- (poorhouse, Hawkshead)
button -- "Swartmoor" -- Swarthmoor Hall
button -- Witherslack
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