button to main menu  Clarke's Survey of the Lakes, 1787

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Page 119:-
[com]pleat victory, slaying Dunmail, taking his two sons prisoners, and putting out there eyes; which also put an end to the Cumberland monarchs: That Dunmail was buried here underneath a very large kairn, (seen at this day close to the road,) whose magnitude and remains argues sufficiently that it was the tomb of a respected hero.
This is not a very improbable story, for this Dunmail assisted the Northumbrians against Edmund; and Edmund, though victorious, was so weakened, that he durst not pursue Dunmail, (who had gotten Llewellyn to join him,) without the assistance of the Scots. Malcolm King of Scots joined Edmund, upon this condition, that if they were successful, Malcolm should have Cumberland upon paying homage. Dunmail being obliged to fly for a while from his powerful enemies, was here determined to hazard a battle, both as having the advantage of the higher ground, and also being driven to the extremity of his kingdom, this being the place where Cumberland is yet divided from Westmorland, which battle proved fatal to him.
Matt. of Westminster says, Leolin, or Llewellyn, joined Edmund. Sim. of Durham says Llewellyn assisted Dunmail: of these two ancient and great historians I rather am inclined to believe the latter; for how could a petty king of Cumberland pretend to withstand the united forces of Edmund, Malcolm, and Llewellyn, after being defeated too? That Malcolm joined Edmund is very certain, for he had the country assigned to him upon condition of doing homage, and that he and his successors should assist Edmund and his successors both by sea and land, and own him as Lord Paramount.
Cumberland hath been rent and torn by its restless inhabitants or envious neighbours; yet hath, since the time of William and Mary, been as loyal subjects to the crown of Great Britain as any county in England; and who distinguished themselves more than its inhabitants in the year 1745? for the natives, though undisciplined as they were, rose in great numbers, harassed the enemy, and took many prisoners. And when the Duke of Cumberland's army came, and were much fatigued with long and hasty marches, having scarcely time allowed to take their victuals, the gentlemen and farmers went to the roads where the soldiers passed, with beef, bread, butter, cheese, ale, &c. and gave them as much as they wanted; walking along with them and bearing their arms till they had eaten and quenched their thirst, for so urgent was their haste that they were not allowed to stop.
The Duke was so well pleased with their loyalty and behaviour, that he procured them a settled rate to the land-tax; so that they do not pay a pound rate after the manner of other counties, but raise a sum by what they call purvey ‡; a favour little enough, considering what they suffered, and the expence they were at in assisting the King's troops, and is not much less than what some counties pay by the book of rates.
‡ Purvey, from the French pourvois, to provide; so called by King James the I. who desired no greater tax of Cumberland than his purveyance, viz. his expences passing the county when going to take possession of the crown of England.
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