button to main menu  Camden's Britannia, edn 1789

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Page 174:-
  #x002A; faciendum procuravit.

... ... ...
[*] F. P. C.
  #x002A; cohorte.
  #x002A; dum.

D. M.
[*] ... ... CVRAVIT
  #x002A; fratri et filiae titulum posuit

  Great and Little Salkeld. Long Megg, and her daughters.
  Long Meg and Her Daughters
The Eden, having now received the Eimot, runs by obscure villages and castles northward through both Salkelds. At the lesser stands a kind of circle of 77 stones, each ten feet high, and before them at the entrance a single one 15 feet high. The common people hereabouts call this Long Megg, and the rest her daughters, and within the circle are two heaps of stones, under which they say the bodies of the slain were buried. And indeed it is probable enough that this is a monument of some victory.
  Kirk Oswald. Armanthwayte. Corby. Wetheral. VIROSIDUM. Warwic. Linstock. OLENACUM. Peterill and Caud rivers. Graystock.

From hence the Eden runs by Kirk Oswald, dedicated to St. Oswald, formerly the property of that Hugh Morvill, who, with his accomplices, murdered Thomas archbishop of Canterbury, in memory of which fact the sword which he then used was long preserved here; thence by Armanthwayte, a castle of the Skeltons: Corby, a castle of the noble and antient family of the Salkelds, which received great addition of wealth by marriage with the heiress of Rosgill: Wetheral, formerly a small monastery cell to the abbey of St. Mary at York, where are certain cells cut out of a rock for places of retreat [f]. Thence by Warwic, which I take to be VIROSIDUM, where the 6th cohort of the Nervii was formerly stationed on the wall against the Picts and Scots, and in the last age a strong stone bridge was built at the expence of the Salkelds and Richmonds: Linstock, a castle of the bishops of Carlisle, in the barony of Crosby, which barony Waltheof, son of earl Gospatric and lord of Allerdale, gave to the church of Carlisle, and which I take to be called by contraction from OLENACUM. For that place seems to have been on the wall where the first Ala Herculea served against the barbarians. Eden, now ready to discharge itself into its frith, receives two rivers at once, the Peterill and the Caud, which run almost parallel to each other from the south. On the Peterill, besides PETRIANAE beforementioned, stands Greistocke, formerly a castle of the sometime illustrious family, which derive their descent from one Ranulph Fitz Walter, of whose descendants William de Graystock married Mary daughter and coheir of Roger de Merley, lord of Morpath, by whom she had a son John, who, having no issue, obtained leave of Edward I. to convey his estate to his aunt's son Ranulph de Granthorpe, son of William, whose posterity, after having been long very considerable, became extinct about the reign of Henry VII. and their estate passed by marriage to the barons Dacre: but the two heiresses general of the last baron Dacre were married to the sons of Thomas Howard, late duke of Norfolk.
  Copper mines. Caudebec. Highyate. Rose c. CONGAVATA
  copper mines
  Rose Castle

On the Caude, besides the copper mines at Caudebeck, is Highyate, a castle of the Richmonds, and a neat castle of the bishops of Carlisle, called The Rose Castle, which also seems to have been CONGAVATA, where the second cohort of the Lergi kept guard; for Congavata signifies in British the valley on the Gavata, now contracted into Caude. But the precise situation of this place I cannot yet point out.
  CARLISLE. LUGUVALLUM. Lugus or Lucus, its meaning among the Gauls and Britans. Lugdunum, Lucotecia, or Lutitia in France.
  placename, Carlisle

Between the confluence of these rivers in the best and by far the most pleaseant spot, stands the very antient city of Carlisle, defended on the north by the Eden, on the east by the Peterill, on the west by the Caude, and besides all these natural fortifications with strong stone walls, a castle, and a citadel, as it is called. It is of a somewhat oblong form running from west to east. On the west is the castle of considerable extent, which, by his arms, appears to have been repaired by Richard III. Almost in the centre of the city rises the cathedral church, whose upper part is of modern erection in a handsome style; but the lower part much older. On the east the citadel built and fortified by king Henry VIII. serves for a defence. The Romans and Britans called this place LUGU-VALLUM and LUGU-BALLIUM, or LUGU-BALLUM [g], the Saxons, according to Bede Luell [h]. Ptolomy, as some think LEUCOPIBIA, Nennius Caer Lualid, the silly prophecies of the Britons Duball's City, we Carlisle, and modern Latin writers Carleolum. For our historians all agree that Luguballia and Carleolum were the same. In tracing its etymology, what infinite pains have been taken by our countryman Leland [i], who at last was forced to believe that the Eden was called Lug, and that Ballum comes from vallis, thus making Lugu-vallum, the valley on the Lug. If I may be allowed to offer a conjecture, I should suppose Vallum, and Vallia derived from the well known Roman military Vallum, which runs be- (sic) the city, it being called by Antoninus LUGU-VALLUM AD VALLUM. This Picts wall afterwards erected on the Vallum of Severus is still visible at Stanwicks, a little village, a little beyond the river Eden, over which is now a wooden bridge, and crosses the river overagainst the castle, where in the bed of the river are still remains of it, huge stones. Pomponius Mela [k] tells us, that Lugus or Lucus signified a tower among the antient Celts, who spoke the same language with the Britans. What Antoninus calls LUGU AUGUSTI he names TURRIS AUGUSTI, so that Lugu-vallum is and signifies the tower or fort on the wall. If the French had derived from this source Lugdunum quasi the tower on the hill, and Lucotecia [†] (for so the antients called what we call Lutetia) quasi fair tower, as the words mean in British, they would have perhaps formed a better etymology than that which derives the latter from Lutum (clay), the former from Lugdus, a fabulous king. That this was a place of consequence under the Romans ap-
174.*   E.H. IV. c.27.
174.†   The old Itinerary lately published says, that Lugdunum signifies desideratus mons, a desirable mountain.
[f] In this dangerous country. H.
[g] Luguvallium Ant. Luguvalum Rav. Lagubami. Ib. Vat. Lugabalia. Malmsb. Legubalia. Flor. Wor.
[h] Vit. Cuthb. c.27.
[i] Com. in Cygn. Cantio v. Luguballia
[k] [blank]
gazetteer links
button -- "Armanthwayte Castle" -- Armathwaite Place
button -- "Caudebeck" -- Caldbeck
button -- "Caude, River" -- Caldew, River
button -- Carlisle Castle
button -- Carlisle Cathedral
button -- "Carlisle" -- Carlisle
button -- "Corby Castle" -- Corby Castle
button -- "Eiden, River" -- Eden, River
button -- "Greistocke Castle" -- Greystoke Castle
button -- Hadrian's Wall
button -- "Highyate Castle" -- High Head Castle
button -- "Kirk Oswald" -- Kirkoswald
button -- "Linstock Castle" -- Linstock Castle
button -- "Long Megg" -- Long Meg and Her Daughters
button -- "Old Penrith" -- Voreda
button -- "Rose Castle" -- Rose Castle
button -- Roughtongill Mines
button -- St Constantine's Cells
button -- "Stanwicks" -- Stanwix
button -- Warwick Bridge
button -- "Warwic" -- Warwick
button -- Wetheral Priory
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