button to main menu  Camden's Britannia, edn 1789

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Page 188:-
"stondith from Bolnes three miles and from Cair Luel four or five, and longid sometime to the Morvilles. Here was 15 years ago the lord Maxwell sore woundid, many slain and drowned in Edon [z]." This relates to the battle of Sollom moss 1524.
Burgh belonged to the Lucys and Multons, and passed by the heiress of the latter to the Dacres of Dacre castle, to the coheiress of a younger branch of whom this barony was allotted, and her descendant in the 4th generation Henry Howard, duke of Norfolk, sold it about 1689 to sir John Lowther, bart. ancestor of the present possessor [a].
  Dacre Castle
At Dacre is the shell of a magnificent castle, once the seat of the Dacre family, who took their name from Acres in the Holy Land; but here are no remains of the monastery, nor does it appear to have subsisted since the Conquest [b]. Mr. Gale derives the name from the Cohors Dacorum stationed here. Here are two rivers Glan, whence Labbé on the Notitia writes it Ambo Glanna [c]. The family of Dacre ended in George lord Dacre 1569, whose great great uncle's daughter marrying sir Richard Fynes, chamberlain to Edward IV. he was created lord Dacre of the South, and his descendants still enjoy the title [d].
Near Dacre is Delamayn, the mansion-house of the Hassels, held of the barony of Greystock in cornage [e]. The church is said to have been erected by the Dacres, instead of a mean one half a mile distant, which probably belonged to the monastery. In the chancel is a cross-legged knight in stone, and the windows are full of the arms of Dacre, single and quartering Vipont and Clifford [f].
  Arthuret. Solom or Solway moss.
  Solway Moss

In Arthuret parish was born and buried Archibald Armstrong, jester to James and Charles I. who was banished from court for speaking too freely of archbishop Laud's violent measure, which had exasperated the Scots by forcing the liturgy on them. Dr. Hugh Todd was rector of this parish. Within it lies a noted morass, commonly called Solom moss, from a small village of that name on the Scotch side. It is famous in history for the defeat of the Scots in Henry VIII's time by sir Thomas Wharton, of which see before, p.51. 156. The few Scotch runaways of 1524 perished in this moss, and some peat diggers are said to have found in it a few years ago the skeleton of a trooper and his horse in complete armour [g].
Solom or Solway Moss consists of 1600 acres, raised a little above the cultivated tract, a mass of thin peaty mud, with a crust too weak in the driest summer to bear a man's weight. In December 1769 it burst its banks by the excessive winter rains of three days continuance preceeding, and the too near approaches of the peat diggers, which had weakened the crust at a gap about 50 yards wide. About 300 acres of moss discharged themselves in a black stream charged with large masses of peat, which surrounded the cottages, and covered 400 acres of cultivated land. Many cattle were drowned, but not one human life lost. It filled the whole valley, leaving behind it great heaps of turf from 3 to 15 and 30 feet, memorials of its height, and at last reached and fell into the Esk. The surface of the moss was reduced near 25 feet sunk into a hollow form [h].
  Solway moss.
In that part called Solway Flow, in the year 1771, was a memorable out-burst of water, moss, gravel, sand, and stones, which spread over and destroyed about 600 acres of fine level fertile ground, and totally altered the face of that part of the country. The moss had been observed to have risen imperceptibly for a long time before. It began to move in the night of November 16, [i] and continued in movement for three days slowly forward, so that the inhabitants generally had time to get off their cattle and other moveables before their houses were burried or rendered inaccessible. The mouth of the breach was about 20 yards wide, and when it began to flow was in depth between five and six yards. By this eruption 28 families were driven from their habitations, and their grounds rendered totally useless and seemed irrecoverable by reason of the depth of covering of the morass and other rubbish to the depth of at least 15 feet. but by means of hushing upwards of 100 acres have been cleared; and, by the indefatigable industry of the owner, it is thought the whole will be recovered, though it will be attended with great expence. Out of the aforesaid moss, Dr. Todd says, have frequently been dug human bones, silver coins of the later ages, earthen pots, iron, and brass weapons, with oak and fir trees of unusual magnitude [k].
Near the place called Chapel Flash, stood antiently a small oratory, in which in 1345, a league between the Scots and English about fixing the limits of both kingdoms, was, in a solemn and religious manner, sworn to and confirmed by commissioners appointed for that purpose. At present nothing remains of the chapel but the name. [l].
Pelling moss near Garstang in Lancashire had made such an irruption in the present century, and Chately moss between Manchester and Warrington in Leland's time [m], with this difference, that the latter so entirely changed its place as to leave a fair plain valley in return for the ground it covered.
  Giant's Grave
  St Andrew, Penrith
  Penrith Beacon

"Pereth, a market town by S. 61 miles from Carluel, where is a strong castle of the king's, and stondeth on a litle water by force cut out of Peterel. But Pereth standith not half a mile from the river of Emot and a mile from the town or castel of Burgham, that longeth to the earls of Cumberland. In Perith is one parish church and a grey friary [n]." A castel of the kinges by the town [o]."
Penrith lies in a bottom, the beacon standing on a high hill as you enter the road above which is the course. A fine valley opens to the west as you descend from the Carlisle road into a very long suburb neatly paved. The town is considerable and handsome, having a very large market. The church was rebuilt of brick 1720, except the steeple. Here is a freeschool. On the north side in the church-yard are two square obelisks, of a single stone each, 11 or 12 feet high, about 12 inches diameter, and 12 by 8 at the sides, the highest about 18 inches diameter, with something like a transverse piece to each, and mortified into a round base. They are 14 feet asunder, and between them is a grave inclosed between four semicircular stones of unequal lengths of five, six, and four and an half, and two feet high, having on the outsides rude carving and the tops
[z] Lel. VII. 69.
[a] Burn, II. 218,219.
[b] Ib. 378. G. Tan. 73.
[c] Gale MS. n.
[d] Dugd. II. 23.
[e] G. Burn, II. 383.
[f] Ib. 382.
[g] Pennant's Voy. to the Hebrides, p.67.
[h] Ib.
[i] Walker's letter to the earl of Bute in Phil. Trans. LXII. p.123, says December 16. See Gent. Mag. XLI. 568. XLIX. 65.
[k] Burn, II. 473. See also Gent. Mag. XLIX. p.65, with a plan of the eruption, and XLI. 567.
[l] Burn, 474.
[m] Lel. VII. 56. See before, p.136.
[n] Lel. VII. 71.
[o] Ib. 72.
gazetteer links
button -- Battle of Solway Moss
button -- "Burgh on Sands" -- Burgh by Sands
button -- "Chapel Flash" -- Chapel Flash
button -- Dacre Castle
button -- "Delamayn" -- Dalemain
button -- "Giant's Grave" -- Giant's Grave
button -- (monastery, Dacre)
button -- Penrith Castle
button -- "Penrith" -- Penrith
button -- (race course, Penrith)
button -- "Solom Moss" -- Solway Moss
button -- St Andrew's Church
button -- St Andrew's Church
button -- St Michael and All Angels Church
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